Employment Opportunities in Saskatchewan for Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities:  a Transition Project
by Robert Auser
SSTA Research Centre Report #98-02: 54 pages, $11
 
Introduction  

Part 1 - Literature Review  

Part 2 - The Saskatchewan Perspective  

Employment Opportunities in Saskatchewan 

Appendix A  - Work Training Programs and Potential Job Opportunities

Appendix B  - Funding Sources

Appendix C  - Saskatchewan Employment Equity Practitioners Association

References  

Suggested Reading  
 

A major thrust of integrated education programs is to have students make successful transitions from school to work. In keeping with the integrated approach to education there is a desire by parents, advocates and school boards to give these students the opportunity to reach their potential in an integrated work place through competitive and supported employment. 

Work experience is a big part of the current school program. In this program students get an opportunity to try various jobs at regular work sites. They develop job skills, life skills and social skills preparing them for a productive place in society. The goal of the education they receive is to allow them to rise to their highest level of functioning and independence. However, when they leave school they are confronted with the dilemma of limited work possibilities. Many of them end up in sheltered workshops (Black & Meyer, 1992) or unemployed (Burnham & Housley, 1992; Cooper, 1991). A sheltered workshop is a work place designed to serve the needs of those with intellectual disabilities in a segregated setting.

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The opinions and recommendations expressed in this report are those of the author and may not be in agreement with SSTA officers or trustees, but are offered as being worthy of consideration by those responsible for making decisions.



 
 

Introduction

Employment status is often cited as an important variable hypothesized as contributing to improved quality of life (Gersten, Crowell & Bellamy, 1986; Inge, Banks, Wehman, Hill & Shafer, 1988; Salzberg, Agran & Lignugaris/Kraft, 1986; Schalock, Keith, Hoffman & Karan, 1989). Having a job not only provides financial benefits but also contributes significantly to the individual being perceived as an adult (Wehmeyer, 1994).

A major thrust of integrated education programs is to have students make successful transitions from school to work. In keeping with the integrated approach to education there is a desire by parents, advocates and school boards to give these students the opportunity to reach their potential in an integrated work place through competitive and supported employment.

Work experience is a big part of the current school program. In this program students get an opportunity to try various jobs at regular work sites. They develop job skills, life skills and social skills preparing them for a productive place in society. The goal of the education they receive is to allow them to rise to their highest level of functioning and independence. However, when they leave school they are confronted with the dilemma of limited work possibilities. Many of them end up in sheltered workshops (Black & Meyer, 1992) or unemployed (Burnham & Housley, 1992; Cooper, 1991). A sheltered workshop is a work place designed to serve the needs of those with intellectual disabilities in a segregated setting.

Best practices indicate job skills training should occur in the natural environment of the work place (Trach, 1990) placement having the potential to become permanent work (Hutchins & Renzaglia, 1990). Herein lies the problem. Where are these natural work place settings and how do we gain access to them?

The purpose of this paper is to report on the literature which focuses on employment options for individuals with intellectual disabilities in integrated work settings.

For the purposes of this paper the definition of intellectual disability will be that of the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) 1992. Intellectual disability refers to:

substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significatly subaverage intellectual functioning (70-75 or lower), existing concurently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home-living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. ("AAMR," 1992, p.5)

Intellectual disability manifests before age 18. The literature reviewed for this paper applies to those persons with mild intellectual disability (50-70 IQ) and moderate intellectual disability (35-55 IQ) as described by the AAMR definition of mental retardation, 1983 (Grossman, 1983).

Table of Contents

 
Part 1
Employment Opportunities in Saskatchewan for Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities:
A Transition Project

Competitive Employment

Competitive employment refers to work that produces valued goods or services for minimum wage or better, in a setting that includes non-disabled workers and provides opportunities for advancement (Rusch, 1986). For persons making the transition from school to competitive work there are two options: no special services, and time-limited services (Rusch, 1986).

The person who requires no special services uses their own resources to access educational or employment opportunities available in the community. The person who requires limited support is offered time-limited services to establish the individual in the job. Later these are discontinued. This does not preclude support at a later time if it is needed during the individual's employment (Rusch, 1986).

There are indications that some form of on-going support is required by all persons with intellectual disabilities. Fifty-two percent change jobs within the first year of employment (Neubert, Tilson & Ianacone, 1989). At any given time one third of those with intellectual disabilities have been separated from their job and are waiting for employment (Schafer, Banks, & Kregel, 1991). With this in mind, competitive employment is suited to only the highest functioning individuals. Supported employment is an approach that works for all levels of intellectual disabilities (Schafer et al. 1991).

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Support Employment

Supported employment enables persons with disabilities to earn wages in a regular work environment with non-disabled peers. They are provided the necessary training and support to maintain the job on an ongoing basis (Simmons, 1992b; Warth, 1990). Supported employment can be defined as a focus on employment outcomes measured in increased wages, job retention and by a favorable cost-benefit ratio as compared to sheltered workshops (Levy et al. 1994; Rusch & Hughes, 1990; Warth, 1990).

Supported employment should not be restricted to those with severe intellectual disabilities. A common assumption is that mildly intellectual disabled individuals can move from school to work more easily than those with severe intellectual disabilities and that they don't need the same types of support (Neubert et al. 1989). There is little evidence to support these assumptions (Neubert et al. 1989). Structured periodic follow-up, as provided by supported employment programs, was found to be an effective strategy to solve problems for those with mild intellectual disabilities and is important to job retention and advancement (Neubert et al. 1989).

The success of supported employment has been well documented based on the results of many studies that included large samples and other studies that extended over long periods of time (Cooper, 1991; Levy et al. 1994; Rusch, 1986; Wehman, 1987). For the employee, success has been shown as: a) gains in quality of life (McCaughrin, Warren, Rusch & Heal, 1993; Wehman, 1987; Wehmeyer, 1994), b) expanded competence in community participation and an increase in skills (Goldberg et al. 1990; Rusch, 1986; Warth, 1990), c) general satisfaction in their employment status (Schalock & Genung, 1993). Recent developments in supported employment have focused around support services and assessment of long term placements. More recently, many studies have focused on issues of specific populations as they relate to the success of supported employment (Levy et al. 1994).

The concept of supported employment shows two changes in the way people think about those with intellectual disabilities (Rusch & Hughes, 1990). First, no longer do people question if those with intellectual disabilities can work; rather they question what supports are needed so they can do the work. Secondly, a change in pre-work training structure of finding an appropriate job placement and then providing the necessary job training, rather than training in isolation and later trying to transfer job skills to the work place.

  Supported employment has a priority in the United States for four reasons (Shafer, Hill, Seyfarth, & Wehman, 1987). First, the unemployment rate among those with intellectual disabilities is five times that of the national average. Second, their higher employment potential has been recognized. Third, many people with intellectual disabilities go unserved by existing services. Finally, movement from adult day programs to less restrictive employment settings has been infrequent. In the United States there has been a rise in the number of persons served in supported employment from 13% to 18% between the years 1988 and 1990 (Kiernan et al. 1995).

In Saskatchewan, currently there are very few persons employed in supported employment programs. The Community Living Division of the Department of Social Services has only 6% of its clients in supported employment while 94% remain in activity centres and sheltered workshops. The Saskatchewan Association for Community Living has only 3% of its clients involved in supported employment.

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Models of Supported Employment

Individual Placement

The individual placement model (sometimes called supported competitive employment) is characterized by initial job development in the regular work force followed by placement of the employee on the job. Training is then conducted by a job coach. Once the desired level of functioning is reached, the job coach fades out to a low level of ongoing support.

Clustered Placement

Sometimes called the enclave model, the clustered placement model characteristically has more than two persons with disabilities placed at a business or industry. A training specialist from the support agency is responsible to train the workers. When training is complete the specialist acts as their supervisor on an ongoing basis. For this reason the clustered placement is suitable for persons with higher levels of intellectual disabilities.

Mobile Work Crew

The mobile work crew consists of five to eight workers under the direction of a foreman who provides training and supervision on-the-job. The types of work done in this model include yard work, recycling pickup and janitorial work.

Entrepreneurial Model

The entrepreneurial model is similar to the clustered placement model, but it is designed to serve those with higher levels of intellectual disabilities. A group of eight or fewer are contracted through a support agency by a business to provide a specific service often bench work in nature. A variation of this is the ownership of a small business by the person with an intellectual disability who is then provided with the needed support of a job coach (Ward, 1994).

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Best Practices in Supported Employment Programs

Best practices in supported employment can be placed into several categories: job development, assessment of client skills, on-the-job training, support personnel, other supports, follow-along, funding and evaluation of program outcomes.

Job Development

Attention should be given to negotiations with the employer and determination of the characteristics of the work place. At this time job analysis of both the vocational job skills and the social skills requisites should be completed and any employer concerns should be addressed. The information gathered from the work places is then used as a resource bank of jobs for potential employees to choose from when job matching is undertaken.

 Assessment of Personal Skills

Social skill deficits and inability to form social relationships with other workers have been noted as a reason for job loss (Chadsey-Rusch, 1990; Cooper, 1991; Greenspan & Shoultz, 1981; Salzberg et al. 1986; Wehman, 1987). Mueller et al. (1989) found employers rated skills related to quality and quantity of production as most important for job success, but reasons for job loss related to character or social skills deficits.

Best practices indicate that the skills of the client be identified before a job match is made (Wehman, 1987). This would assure that the client is capable of entry level vocational and social skills expectations. Higher skill level development would then be achieved through specific training plans on-the-job. For job retention it is important to develop many skills and abilities: responsibility, dependability, honesty, reliability and personal-social skills of being able to offer help and praise to co-workers (Wilgosh, 1990).

On-the-Job Training

Training of the supported employee occurs on-the-job in two main areas: vocational skills and social skills. The direction of this training is determined by work place demands and the needs of the employee (Trach, 1990). The job coach is the person who provides this training. Initial training is intense but later fades out to a low-level of on-going maintenance of support as the employee becomes competent in the skills demanded by the job. The level of on-going maintenance support increases with the level of intellectual disability, to the point of full-time support for those with higher levels of intellectual disability (Hall & Wheeler, 1993). Training strategies are behavioral in nature and become more sophisticated with employees who have moderate to severe intellectual disabilities (Simmons, 1992b).

Professional Support Personnel

Traditionally, support personnel have been job coaches who provide initial skills training and follow-up support. Studies that have been successful in training those with higher levels of intellectual disability have used job coaches with a Masters Degree in Special Education (Simmons, 1992b). They must be skilled in behavioral methods of training (Simmons, 1992b). Their job demands them to be skilled managers, communicators, decision makers and trainers (Ellis, Rusch, Tu & McCaughrin, 1990). They provide full support to the trainee and the employer during initial training so that contact is positive and placements can't fail (Mueller et al. 1989).

The position of job coach does have some drawbacks. A problem exists in the fact that job coaches are poorly paid (Ellis et al. 1990; Simmons, 1992b) and this leads to a high staff turn over rate (Simmons, 1992b). As the demand for supported employment increases, greater demands are put on the job coach that are difficult to provide (Test, Keul & Howell, 1993). There also exists a danger of the supported employee becoming dependent on the job coach (Jauss, Wacker, Berg, Flynn & Hurd, 1994). An answer to this problem may be to use the natural environment of the work place to provide the needed support (Fabian, Edelman & Leedy 1993; Jauss et al. 1994). Another solution is the development of support personnel who would be responsible for the whole person, to insure on-going successful adjustment to community and work life (Clear & Mank, 1990; Test et al. 1993).

Test et al. (1993), suggest the use of a community resource worker (CRW) to provide on-going support. These workers take over from the job coach once skills training is complete. The CRW trains co-workers to provide the on-going support for the employee. The CRW assists the supported employee with non-work related issues that they may need help with and is concerned with the total person much like a social worker. The CRW is at the work place and available to the supported employee only when necessary. In this way the linking of supported employee to co-workers, peers and supervisor for support is allowed to function independently and naturally as possible. In this approach the focus is on changing the environment to better support the individual rather focusing on how to change the individual (Fabian et al. 1993; Wilgosh, 1990).

Other Supports

Support should be a collection of individualized strategies chosen and applied as needed (Buckley et al. 1990). Support can be defined in relation to the variables of the individual; the job; and the support organization of parents, families, friends, and related professionals (Buckley et al. 1990).

Once the personal support needs of the employee are known the work place can be analyzed for natural supports. This would include determining the willingness of co-workers to assist with support, along with the availability of employee assistance programs. Co-workers may be used to observe, advocate, train and provide ongoing support (Buckley et al. 1990).

It is important to note success of job placement for workers with intellectual disabilities is directly tied to relations with co-workers (Hill, Wehman, Hill & Goodall, 1985). Satisfaction with co-workers is a key factor in determining expressions of satisfaction with work (Clear & Mank 1990). Company and co-worker support influences integration and success of the supported employee (Buckley et al. 1990; Shafer, Rice, Metzler & Haring, 1989). The employer can also provide support to the employee and may be willing to provide extra supervision and time for training.

The support organization includes parents, families, friends and related professionals. Their active involvement is critical to employment success (Hill et al. 1985). Parent participation can be on various levels and may reduce the role played by support personnel (Buckley et al. 1990).

Currently, supported employment programs are undergoing significant changes in regards to supports (Cooper, 1991). From studies of long term supported programs it is evident that employees have changing needs (Schafer et al. 1991). Some employees need less support over time, while it is estimated that at any given time 30 percent of employees in supported employment programs are waiting to be retrained and placed in new jobs (Schafer et al. 1991). More investigation has to be done into the long term needs of supported employees (Cooper, 1991), since lack of support has been cited as a cause of job loss (Cooper, 1991; Ford, Dineen & Hall, 1984).

Interagency Cooperation

Reasons for the need to coordinate result from increased complexity of service delivery, accompanied by increases in the number of agencies and professionals involved (Szymanski et al. 1990), along with fragmented funding to independent agencies resulting in frequently duplicated services (Vogelsberg, 1990). This complex delivery system is poorly understood by most people (Noble & Conley, 1987) and presents a significant barrier to supported employment (Whitehead, 1990).

Coordination should be focused on total needs over a period of time from the short term day-to-day concerns to the longer term month-to-month and over a span of several years.

The issues to be focused on would not only be related to employment but also to residential and recreational needs (Schalock, & Kiernan, 1990). Personal concerns of client and family should also be considered. There are many benefits to a well coordinated service delivery system: a) minimizing of duplication and fragmentation, maximizing efficiency and effectiveness (Schalock & Kiernan, 1990); b) higher quality planning (Szymanski, Hanley-Maxwell & Parker, 1990); c) termination of competition between agencies for community work sites (President's Committee on Mental Retardation, 1978). Everson and Moon (1990) suggest that coordination may be achieved through the use of interagency teams (please see the master's project for a detailed description).

Follow-along

Follow-along refers to the on-going support that employees require to maintain their job. A study by Hall and Wheeler (1993) found the amount of time needed to supply follow-along support increases with the level of severity of intellectual disability. Lagomarcino (1990) determined, that once established, the need for follow-along does not increase or decrease. Presence of quality follow-along support determines the success of supported employment programs (Ellis et al. 1990; Goldberg et al. 1990; Wehman, 1987). Follow-along has traditionally been provided by the job coach after training has been faded out (Lagomarcino, 1990).

Funding

Implementing best practices may be impossible due to lack of funding (Hill et al. 1987; Johnson, 1990). Schafer et al. (1991) suggests that funding may be threatened with the fact that 30% of employees need retraining and replacement into different jobs within their first year of employment. In Canada's current economic situation it is hard to imagine that there will be any increase in funding for any social programs. This problem challenges us to create new and cost efficient supported employment programs that will operate on existing and ever shrinking government budgets.

The future of supported employment may depend on demonstrations of improvements in efficiency (Conley & Noble, 1990). Lam (1986, 1987) found that supported employment was more expensive to operate when compared to sheltered workshops. Lam's work has been dispelled in light of other studies (McCaughrin et al. 1993; Nobel & Conley, 1987), where benefits have been shown to the supported employee, taxpayer and society. Wehman et al. (1987) found that for every dollar spent on supported employment programs over $2.00 dollars were earned by employees. These findings suggest that limited government resources are better spent on supported rather than sheltered employment. Redirecting funding from segregated programs to community integrated programs and supported employment programs will solve the funding problem and provide the needed services (Hill et al. 1987; Vogelsberg, 1990).

Evaluation of Program Outcomes

In addition to demonstrating a cost-benefit , supported employment must be able to provide reliable evidence of possible intangible benefits (Conley & Noble, 1990; Vogelsberg, 1990). Evaluation is needed to demonstrate benefits to the employee, to the employer and to promote the growth of supported employment. Schafer et al. (1991) states the need for program evaluation that is clear and socially valid as an indicator of its efficiency.

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Implications for Education and Training

Necessary Skills and Training

Failure of job placement in supported employment is often attributed to a lack of employee skills (Chadsey-Rusch, 1990; Cooper, 1991; Mueller et al. 1989; Wilgosh, 1990). Many studies suggest that the loss of a job is due mainly to the lack of social skills (Ford et al. 1984; Hill, et al. 1985; Lagomarcino, 1990). Social skills help workers with intellectual disabilities to interact with their co-workers and form social relationships which are necessary for successful supported employment.

Research has noted other important skills, abilities and qualities: a) efficiency and pride in work (Burnham & Housley, 1992; Cooper, 1991); b) positive work attitudes and motivation (Cooper, 1991); c) dependability and interpersonal skills (Cooper, 1991; Mueller et al. 1989); d) job performance, job productivity and low absenteeism (Cooper, 1991); e) skills associated with quality and quantity of work produced (Mueller et al. 1989; Wilgosh, 1990); f) responsibility, honesty, reliability and personal social skills of offering help and praise to co-workers in work contexts (Mueller et al. 1989; Wilgosh, 1990).

A study by Cooper (1991) found that employers viewed mildly intellectual disabled individuals as having attributes that are highly valued. It was discovered, however, that lack of social maturity and lack of the ability to be flexible in adapting to new jobs, or to solving problems, may influence an employer not to hire.

It is evident that education and training of persons with intellectual disabilities must first be concerned with social skills instruction. This group of skills provides the foundation on which to build acceptance by employer and co-workers. It allows the supported worker to fit into the work place while being trained in necessary job skills.

Transition from school to work

Transition should be seen as a dynamic process involving students, school services, and post school services that allow the individual with intellectual disability to attain maximum levels of employment, community living, integration and participation (Neubert et al. 1989). For this to happen individual planning is a must. Success of this process is based on community organization and agency co-ordination (Neubert et al. 1989).

Part of transition planing is the work experience program. Work experience programs increase the potential of employment for those with intellectual disabilities (Black & Meyer, 1992). To determine best fit of employee to job, work experience should be undertaken at various job sites that have the potential to turn into full time work (Hutchins & Renzaglia, 1990). During transition the student's progress and employment needs are systematically evaluated to determine, then secure, the most appropriate job placement prior to the completion of their formal education (Hutchins & Renzaglia, 1990).

Implications for Career Guidance and Counselling

Persons with intellectual disabilities need help and guidance in identifying career opportunities as well as accessing services starting in the school system and continuing in the community service system (Whitehead, 1990; Wilgosh & French, 1984). Service providers and parents traditionally have made most job placement decisions with little regard given to the preferences of the individual (Martin, 1990).

Mueller et al. (1989) suggests that a generic skills model be used for initial training. Specific job skills should be taught later through on-the-job training in a community setting ("Corporate Canada," 1992; Simmons, 1992b; Sitlington, 1992). The skill goals of training should be based on the desires of the employer and employee ("Corporate Canada," 1992). Everyone involved with the supported employee should be aware of their training goals so that the goals can be supported and reinforced in all parts of their lives. This may partially explain why one third of employees who have gone through supported employment programs are unemployed at any given time.

Literature suggests that guidance and counselling should provide work experiences on a regular basis starting at age 13, which helps to develop a work ethic and a feeling of pride in work (Burnham & Housley, 1992). The individual should have freedom of choice within the service delivery system (Menchetti, 1990; Vogelsberg, 1990; Wehmeyer, 1994) which should take into account their vocational evaluation of interests and abilities (Menchetti, 1990; Parent & Hill, 1990). The match of client to job must provide a best fit ("Corporate Canada," 1992; Martin, 1990). Models of consumer directed job placement (Martin, 1990) and vocational evaluation (Menchetti, 1990) are best practices in guidance and counselling.

Menchetti (1990), suggests an ecological model of vocational evaluation consisting of measurement, data analysis and decision making. In this approach data collected and individual interests serve as the basis to survey the community for jobs and to develop jobs. Clear preferences of the individual are matched to the supported employment setting. Once a match is made continuous vocational evaluation provides information to predict ongoing needs.

The focus of this model is analysis of the general abilities, aptitudes, and/or behavior of the individual, as well as the social climate and ecological dimensions of the work place, to determine the best fit of employee to job. Social climate and ecological dimensions include many variables: physical, social, organizational, relationship, goal orientation, system maintenance and change, transportation and availability of external incentives. The best case scenario would have the ecological model of vocational evaluation determine two or three potential jobs for the employee.

The consumer directed job placement model (Martin, 1990), gives the individual with intellectual disabilities input in decisions regarding potential work. Individuals match their interests and abilities to jobs available in the community. Work that matches interests increases motivation and may be more crucial to employment success than specific job skills (Martin, 1990). The model has three steps. First, self planning sessions help individual consumers to choose work experiences, followed by hands-on visits to community work sites. Second, they test out their choices during job tryouts. Third, consumers summarize their work experience outcomes in terms of preferences and self-evaluations. This demonstrates what they can do and like to do, leading to the final step of placement in the preferred job. Consumers test two or three jobs before determining the job that has the best fit. For those who are incapable of making choices parents and advocates take on this responsibility.

The combined use of consumer directed job placement and the ecological model of vocational evaluation provides the best possible job match and goes a long way to insure job success.

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Effects of Attitude

The attitudes of the public (Pope & Tarlov, 1991; Ward, 1994), employers and professionals, are among the strongest social and environmental barriers to supported employment programs (Pope & Tarlov, 1991). Co-workers and parents attitudes also play an important role.

Employer Attitude

Employers ultimately make the decision to hire individuals with intellectual disabilities and therefore are part of the key to success of supported employment programs. Earlier studies of employer attitude have shown that initial attitude tends to be negative (Marcouiller, Smith & Bordieri, 1987; Wilgosh & Mueller, 1989). More recent studies have shown a change in employer attitude to being more positive toward those with intellectual disabilities (Black & Meyer, 1992; Levy, Jessop, Rimmerman, Francis & Levy, 1993). Attitude can become more positive providing the employer encounters a positive experience with an individual with an intellectual disability (Levy et al. 1993; Marcouiller et al. 1987; Wilgosh & Mueller, 1989). The challenge to service agencies is to insure that hiring a worker with an intellectual disability is a positive experience for the employer and the employee.

Co-worker Attitude

Attitudes of co-workers can make or break the work placement for a person with disabilities. Wilgosh (1990) suggest that non-disabled workers often do not know how to interact with workers who have intellectual disabilities. This lack of understanding is often caused by the disabled employee's poor social skills, and results in problems on the job and eventual termination (Harrison & Tomes, 1990; Wehman, 1987). If positive social relationships can be cultivated in the work place the results are acceptance of the employee with an intellectual disability (Shafer et al. 1989), and a successful job placement (Wacker, 1989). In a study by Clear and Mank (1990) workers with an intellectual disability identified satisfaction with co-workers as a key factor in their satisfaction with work. The feeling of satisfaction must be due to positive attitudes of acceptance expressed by their non-disabled peers.

Parental Attitude

Positive parent attitude toward work and supported employment are powerful indicators of success (Clear & Mank, 1990; Schultz, 1986; Ward, Parmenter, Riches & Hauritz, 1985). Levy et al. (1994) however, note the need for more parent/professional communication to improve parents' expectations for the vocational potentials of their intellectually disabled children.

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Conclusion

Services are driven by ideology and economic factors. The dominant view is that people who have intellectual disabilities have the right to be supported in community settings. The goal of this ideology remains to bring those with intellectual disabilities as close to the mainstream of society, as much as possible, in all aspects of their lives including work. This is a great challenge since the majority of persons with an intellectual disability have difficulty attaining and maintaining competitive employment and little access to supported employment programs at this time. Most persons with an intellectual disability are still in activity centres, sheltered workshops or are unemployed or underemployed.

If we can solve the attitude problem job potential looks promising in the service sector and small business. An example of this is that of Stevenville, Newfoundland where small businesses have been set up with the help of government start-up money (Ward, 1994). The owners have an intellectual disability and are helped by a support worker. In two cases the businesses make enough money to pay for the wages of the support worker.

Large companies should not be overlooked as potential work sites. Notably some large fast food chains have initiated their own supported employment programs: McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut and Wendy's (Vogelsberg, 1990). The Metro Toronto Association for Community Living has contracted work with such large companies as IBM, CIBC, Loblaws and Ontario Hydro ("Corporate Canada," 1992).

The future of supported employment programs may depend on demonstrating improvements in program effectiveness and efficiency over time. Some aspects of supported employment programs needing improvement are quality, access and stability. Quality improvements could include supporting risk taking innovations, applying quality assurance systems, encouraging business to take a leadership

role and encouraging continued growth of self-advocacy. Issues revolving around funding and transition projects from school to work must be solved to increase access to programs for those waiting for supported employment. Stability of supported employment is achieved through policy, legislation, funding and through strong support networks of family, community, co-workers and friends of the supported employee.

 
Part 2
The Saskatchewan Perspective
 

Employment Opportunities in Saskatchewan

All agencies in Saskatchewan offering services to persons with intellectual disabilities were contacted for information regarding employment opportunities. A survey of their program offerings are listed in appendix A. Funding sources for training and wage subsidies along with business loan information are included in appendix B. Appendix C is a list of the Saskatchewan Employment Equity Practitioners Association.

Vignettes are presented to give readers a picture of supported employment outcomes that students with intellectual disabilities might expect upon graduation. These vignettes were provided by service agencies that support persons with intellectual disabilities. The stories are true, but the names and sometimes other identifying features have been changed to ensure anonymity. The vignettes lead into a discussion of the employment situation in Saskatchewan.

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Vignette #1

Julie Burns is a 24 year-old woman who has a mild congenital intellectual disability and a learning disability. She is the youngest of two children with one older brother. She lives in an urban setting at home with her parents and brother who are very supportive, active advocates for her.

Julie attended a segregated special education program which was housed in a regular high school. During high school she had many work education placements in the community. Three placements were at local businesses where she worked with the house keeping staff providing basic cleaning services. Another work placement was in a small business office running a photocopier.

After graduation from high school in June of 1993, Julie was referred to a local agency providing services for persons with disabilities. There she went through a skills evaluation program, a life skills program, and then began a work experience program. The work experience program gave her experience working in a restaurant kitchen and in a donut shop.

She proved to be a good employee during her work experience at the donut shop and was hired. The employer and the service agency created a job description especially to meet her abilities. The job consists of dish-washing, busing tables and general cleaning. It pays minimum wage. Job training was provided for one hour a day for six weeks. Supported employment continues with a staff member from the service agency dropping in to see Julie and her employer once a month.

Julie has been employed for 6 months now and is a loyal, dedicated, friendly person who has a good relationship with her employer and fellow employees. The management is very pleased with her performance and told her the job was hers for as long as she wanted. Julie has dreams of moving to more challenging work, which is possible providing she has intensive training.

She drops by the training center from time to time to visit her friends and to take part in social activities offered through the center. Julie sometimes appears to miss the social contact the center had provided and talks about coming back there to work.

Vignette #2

Dan Page is a 30 year-old male diagnosed with a mild intellectual disability and an anxiety disorder. He is nervous and apprehensive, and can get to the point of nausea if upset. He is single and lives with his mother and older brother who are active advocates for him. Dan is a pleasant cheerful person who wants to do his best but has a high need for support.

Dan attended an alternative high school in an urban setting and received a vocational grade 12. During his high school education he took work experience and worked at two different gas stations pumping gas, two different restaurants washing dishes, and a hotel restaurant assisting with food preparation.

Upon graduation Dan was referred to a service agency providing training and work for persons with disabilities. It was here that Dan went through a skills evaluation program, a work training program and a work experience program. Through the work experience program Dan was placed at a gas station where he was eventually hired. A supported employment program provided the necessary training and ongoing support. Dan lost the job when a change in ownership took place.

Following the job loss Dan was placed in an on-the-job training program in a large office building. Here he was placed with the night caretaking crew and trained to wash windows, scrub floors with power equipment and do other cleaning duties. Ninety hours were spent on training with the job coach, which was eventually faded out to ongoing support visits to Dan and his employer every two weeks.

Life has been going very well for Dan. He has been with this employer for six months and his boss took a liking to him promoting him to a day job cleaning the cafeteria. Dan is very happy with this promotion as he always wanted to work with people. This was accompanied by a raise in pay to $6.25/hour and a Christmas bonus. Dan enjoys the independence his job provides and recently his mother and he bought a car together.

Vignette #3

Brenda Tweed is a 22 year-old female who was diagnosed as having a mild intellectual disability. She was brought up in an abusive family situation from which she was eventually removed. Brenda then came to live with her aunt, who was supportive of her at home, but not at school. Her aunt was not interested in being involved in the transition planning process.

Brenda attended a segregated alternative education program in an urban high school. Her education included academics, life skills, and work experience. Brenda's last work placement in grade 12 became a paid summer job.

Following grade 12 Brenda attended a college and took the Transitional Vocational Program. After completing the one year course she found employment through a service agency in a clothing store located in a small town. Here she is paid a competitive wage and gets no financial support from the government.

  Brenda is very happy with how her life has worked out. She enjoyed her college experience, and now enjoys her job where she has worked for the last 12 months. Currently she lives independently with a very supportive landlady who advocates for her.

Vignette #4

John is a 22 year-old male who was diagnosed with a moderate intellectual disability. He grew up in a rural setting with his mother, father, older sister and younger brother with whom he continues to live. His family has been very supportive, advocating for him at every opportunity.

He graduated from an alternate grade twelve program in a near by city. His school program allowed him to participate in various work placements. John's work experiences range from volunteer work to paid employment inserting fliers in newspapers.

Upon graduation John was referred to a service agency by Social Services. The agency then located a work placement for him in a restaurant. After an initial trial period the employer hired John as a dishwasher. He was to receive job coaching for six months, but after one month his employer indicated that he was doing fine. John is now working without a job coach and is doing more than dishes. In addition he now does food preparation, and cleaning of staff room and washrooms.

John is doing well and has been employed for eight months. He receives minimum wage and his employer receives no government subsidies. His employer indicates that John's quantity and quality of work are excellent and his co-workers enjoy working with him.

Vignette #5

Glen Wood is a 24 year-old male who has a moderate intellectual disability and is diagnosed as having Down Syndrome. He grew up in a small city where he continues to live with his mother and father who act as strong advocates for him.

Glen attended high school in an integrated program which included academic instruction, life skills training and work experience. Through the combined efforts of his teacher and a job developer from a support agency, his final work placement during grade twelve in a restaurant became a government funded on-the-job training program.

More than two years have passed since the training program ended and Glen is still successfully employed at the restaurant, earning a competitive wage through a wage subsidy program. Modifications to the job have been done to allow him to work there. Due to food allergies Glen is restricted to work with only certain foods, and issued rubber gloves for further protection.

Glen's employer is dedicated to keeping him on staff and has trained co-workers to provide support for him. This support is critical since Glen's language is hard to understand and he relies on environmental cues since he cannot tell time. He also needs verbal prompts when excited to control excessive saliva.

Glen fills his spare time with other work activities such as delivering a weekly newspaper and helping feed cattle at a feed lot twice a month.

Vignette #6

Sara Lowe is a 23 year-old female diagnosed with a moderate intellectual disability due to Down Syndrome. She grew up on a farm with her mother and father.

She attended the local high school in a small nearby town, where she received academic instruction, life skills and work experiences both in school and in the community. She worked in the school library and the main office helping with office duties. Sara had a work experience in a fast food restaurant preparing food, washing dishes, cleaning washrooms and tables. Sara also worked in an office where her duties included stuffing envelopes, filing and shredding paper.

Throughout Sara's life her parents have been active advocates for her, but found that the transition from school to work was often quite difficult. They always wanted the best for Sara. A tough decision following high school was made which allowed Sara to move to a nearby town for employment. Sara, having lived away from home two days a week during high school to allow for a work experience placement, made this transition much easier.

Once this decision was made, Sara was helped to locate living accommodations and settle into a job. She now lives with a landlady who helps to advocate for her.

A support service agency located a job and set up on-the-job training for Sara at a restaurant. Here her duties include clearing tables, pouring water and coffee, delivering menus, and talking to customers. Sara is currently becoming proficient at pouring coffee. Her employer, co-workers and customers enjoy having Sara around and her employment situation is working out well.

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Vignette Summary

The preceding vignettes give us a realistic picture of the positive outcomes that supported employment can provide for persons with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities in both rural towns and larger urban cities.

Common threads run through each vignette. First, every individual had academic instruction, social skills training and work experience in their high school program. Second, each person is now employed in the service sector. All but one are earning minimum wage or better with no wage subsidy. A supportive home environment was key for all persons but one. In the latter case, the school, service agency and landlady are providing the needed support. Finally, the fact that each employer is very supportive is likely of critical importance.

Supported employment has allowed these people a chance to maximizing their potential and live a normalized life. Their jobs have allowed them to be productive, providing them with dignity and the opportunity to perform honest work for fair pay.

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A Statistical Perspective

These positive stories must be put into perspective. Statistics from agencies providing competitive and supported work opportunities have been gathered.

The Community Living Division (CDL) of The Department of Social Services provided the following information (J. Browne, personal communication, January 18, 1996):

Estimated number of persons with intellectual

disabilities in Saskatchewan - 10 000

CLD caseload - 3 200

CLD caseload of working age - 2 300

Breakdown of those of working age:

- in sheltered workshops - 1 035* (45%)

- in activity centers - 1 134* (49%)

- in support employment

(wage subsidy programs) - 142 (6%)

                                        2 311 Total

(* There may be more clients attending these programs since the Department of Mental Health and the Department of Indian Affairs may fund additional spaces. CLD acts as a provider of funding for these spaces which exist in service agencies. These agencies are listed in Appendix A.)

 

The Saskatchewan Association for Community Living (SACL) provided the following client information

(S. Campbell, personal communication, December 22, 1995):

- in competitive employment - 161 (26%)

(no wage subsidy)

- in supported employment - 20 (3%)

(80% of this group on wage subsidy)

- in education and training programs - 154 (25%)

- looking for work - 107 (17%)

- inactive (no contact for 3 months) - 176 (29%)

- SACL case-load 618 Total

The Saskatchewan Association of Rehabilitation Centers (SARC) provided the following client information (M. Drey, personal communication, November 16, 1995):

SARCAN recycling centers (supported employment) - 200

SARC is currently undertaking an internal study of clients, the number served and level of disability. No other statistics are available.

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Discussion

Community Living Division (CLD) is the government division of Social Services which funds spaces in sheltered workshops and activity centres. CLD provides the estimate of 10 000 persons in Saskatchewan with intellectual disabilities. No official count has been done (J. Browne, personal communication, January 18, 1996). When applying the AAMR definition of intellectual disabilities to prevalence statistics of intellectual disabilities, which range between

1.2% and 2.3% of the population (Hallahan, & Kauffman, 1991), we discover that between 12 100 and 23 000 persons in Saskatchewan have some form of intellectual disability. Since identification and statistics on this population are not accurately kept, it is difficult to know how many are actually employed. It is critical for policy-makers and planners to know as accurately as possible, how many people in Saskatchewan have disabilities and the nature of the disability in order to determine what services are needed. That information is not available.

As well, a problem exists in that only those who seek help from CLD become a part of their case-load. This means that many who lack the knowledge and skill to seek out help and many who lack personal advocates may be left on their own. This is further complicated with the fact that there is no legislation mandating a transition process from school to work or from one job to the next. In this service gap, many who need services may be lost. It is my suspicion that many persons with intellectual disabilities are in these situations, and find themselves unemployed and receiving no service.

Statistics from CLD, indicate that only 6% of their clients are employed in supported employment. The majority of government funding dollars are put into sheltered workshops and activity centres. Little has changed in Saskatchewan since Lorne Elkin's (1976) study. It called for diversified industries and job creation in the community. The study recognized sheltered workshops and activity centres as an extension of the institutional system paying token wages (less than $80.00/month) and a dead end for many clients. It is an unfortunate scenario that only those who are very capable are working in the regular work force, despite research findings of competence among persons who are moderate and severely intellectually disabled. It appears that the institutional mind set of workshops and activity centres has yet to be overcome.

  Human Rights legislation has been developed in Saskatchewan that has attempted to correct this injustice (see appendix D). Persons with disabilities are protected by this legislation from employer discrimination based on assumption of candidate inadequacy. The legislation further forces an employer to "accommodate" a person with disabilities. This may mean changes to the physical environment to accommodate a physical disability, or changes to the human environment to accommodate a intellectual disability. Unfortunately this legislation is weak since it does not apply if it would cause the employer undue hardship or intolerable financial cost.

Saskatchewan needs to improve Human Rights legislation and shift the focus from sheltered workshops to supported and competitive employment. Government should change funding policy so that supported and competitive job development is encouraged. It is beneficial to both the employee and the tax payer to have this happen.

Statistics from the Saskatchewan Association for Communit y Living (SACL) are more encouraging for those capable of working in a competitive environment. Twenty-six percent of their case load is currently involved in this type of employment. These clients tend to be the most capable among those with disabilities. The story gets worse for those who need supported employment. Only three percent of their clients are involved in this type of work. Most likely those who have greater support needs are in sheltered employment.

Unemployment is exceptionally high among SACL clients. When the categories of 'those looking for work' are combined with 'those who are inactive,' 46% of their clients are unemployed. This rate is five times that of the general population.

The problem of unemployment is not isolated to those with intellectual disabilities. A solution must be found that will benefit all people. Permanent job creation is the only answer in this down sizing economy. I suggest that inventive risk takers will be successful in finding a solution to unemployment through creation of their own small business. This has been successfully demonstrated in Newfoundland with persons who have intellectual disabilities (Ward, 1994). Other creative solutions must be developed and implemented.

An example of a creative solution to the unemployment situation is SARCAN recycling. SARCAN is a company that was developed to employ those with various disabilities, including those who have intellectual disabilities. The project has the characteristics of competitive employment with the support features of supported employment. The result is a network of recycling centers that employ two hundred people and pay wages at or above minimum wage with no salary subsidy.

Creative solutions must also be found for service delivery. Funding is limited and duplication of service and gaps in service provision must be avoided. This points to the need for a review of all services offered for those with intellectual disabilities. The acceptance of a team model for identifying needs and providing delivery of coordinated services is important. This point can't be overstated since poor organization of service delivery not only results in wasted financial resources, but also wasted human resources of those with disabilities.

Coordinated services should occur between service agencies and educational institutions focusing on the development of natural supports within the community. Self-determination of the client must be included in this coordinated process. A case in point is the transition from school to work where many persons with disabilities encounter great difficulty. To avoid this, service agencies and educators must work and plan together with clients and their families, to provide academic and social skills programs along with a coordinated delivery of work experience. The result should be a smooth transition from school-based work experience to a permanent job in competitive or supported employment.

Evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of all programs must not be overlooked. Evaluation of successful programs will encourage future program development, provide service models and justify attempts to normalize the lives of those with intellectual disabilities.

To normalize the lives of those with intellectual disabilities, the attitudes of others must be positive. Research literature shows this happens through positive experiences with persons who have disabilities. We must make sure that work experience, competitive employment and supported employment initiatives include the employer and co-workers. It is vital that the employer and co-workers see the potential of the person. The school or agency must assure the employer that help and training is available when needed thus eliminating most potential problems.

Employment opportunities in Saskatchewan for young adults with intellectual disabilities are few in supported and competitive employment. There are however, examples of persons with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities who are working in these employment settings. They give us hope that things are changing, but the rate of change is very slow. The majority of persons with intellectual disabilities are still in sheltered workshops and activity centers.

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Appendix A - Work Training Programs and Potential Job Opportunities Agency - Cosmopolitan Industries

28 - 34th Street East

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3Y2

Phone (306) 664-3158

Fax (306) 244-5509

Programs - Avocational - is an activity program that provides enjoyment, personal growth and enriched quality of life.

Prevocational - is a personal/social skills development program in preparation for vocational activities.

Vocational - program is designed to develop specific work skills for application at the work centre and in the community.

Eligibility - Persons who are not admissible to other community day programs and services due to intellectual and/or multiple disabilities and are age 21. Other stipulations apply. All applications must be approved by the Admissions and Discharge Committee.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Agency - Disabilities Directorate

Saskatchewan Labour

5th Floor 1870 Albert St.

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7

Phone (306) 787-5101

Fax (306) 787-4038

Program - Resume inventory and referral service - for persons seeking employment with provincial, civic or federal government. No job coaching is available.

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Agency - Saskatchewan Abilities Council

Provincial Office

2310 Louise Ave.

Saskatoon, Sask. S7J 2C7

Phone (306) 374-4448

Fax (306) 373-2665

Programs - Activity Centre - provide skill development in basic living skills, socialization and recreation. This program is available in Swift Current and Yorkton.

Vocational Rehabilitation Program - is offered through Training Centres in Regina, Saskatoon and Yorkton. It consists of a continuum of programs that assist individuals with disabilities to achieve their individual goals for employment and independence. The programs are in three areas: training, supported employment and support services.

Training - is provided in the Training Centre and on work crews. Realistic work settings offer the opportunity to develop work and social skills enabling individuals to increase their independence, confidence and improve their chances to obtain and maintain competitive employment. The Training Centre also provides a secure work environment for those who choose not to work in the community.

Supported Employment - is available and pays at or above minimum wage. Jobs are in the community and are supported by a job coach who provides on-site, one-to-one training. Training is provided as long as required until the individual's performance meets employer's expectations. Long term ongoing support and evaluation is provided for the employee and the employer. The program is available in Regina, Saskatoon, Swift Current and Yorkton.

Support Services - are provided to identify, develop and empower individuals to achieve vocational goals. This support is through vocational assessment, vocational evaluations and vocational counselling.

 

Provincial Contacts:

Saskatoon Regina

1410 Kilburn Ave. 825 McDonald Street

S7M 0J8 S4N 2X5

Phone (306) 653-1694 Phone (306) 569-9048

Fax (306) 652-8886 Fax (306) 352-3717

Swift Current Yorkton 1550 North Railway St. W. 162 Ball Rd., Box 5011

Box 1226, S9H 3X4 S3N 3Z4

Phone (306) 773-2076 Phone (306) 782-2463

Fax (306) 778-9188 Fax (306) 782-7844

Prince Albert

1205 First Ave. East

S6V 2A9

Phone (306) 764-9752

Fax (306) 764-8376

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Agency - Saskatchewan Association for Community Living

3031 Louise Street

Saskatoon, Sask. S7J 3L1

Phone (306) 955-3330

Programs - Transition Project School to Work - is a pilot project in Saskatoon focusing on effective career planning, effective job placements and assistance in individual planning in all aspects of life.

Vocational Preparation - skills training is provided to prepare the individual for placement in community based employment.

Employment Opportunities - consists of preparation of the employee for work, prior to and on-the-job. Assistance with resolving concerns both on and off the job is provided along with evaluation of employee progress. Arrangements are made for ongoing support.

Provincial Contacts:

Regina Office Estevan Office

1235 Albert Street #8 - 1104 - 5th Street

S4R 2R4 Box 271

Phone (306) 757-3674/3615 S4A 0Z3

Phone (306) 634-9554

Yorkton Office

10 - 41 Broadway West

S3N 0L6

Phone (306) 783-1355

 

 Agency - Saskatchewan Association of Rehabilitation Centers

111 Cardinal Crescent

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 6H5

Phone (306) 933-0616

Fax (306) 653-3932

Programs - Work experience programs - are offered by most member centers. Skills are taught that will enable the client to work more effectively with others and become prepared for employment.

Employment Support - ongoing support of employees in choosing, obtaining and retaining employment.

Sarcan Recycling - the recycling division of SARC. Employs over 200 people with disabilities in over 60 different Saskatchewan communities.

 

Member Centres

Cudworth Columbian Industries

Davidson Interlake Human Resources Corp.

Estevan Estevan Diversified Services

Gravelbourg Gravelbourg Bon Ami, Inc.

Humbolt Futuristic Industries

Kindersley West Central Industries, Inc.

Kipling Kipling and District Association for Handicapped Adults

Kronau Harvest Community of the Prairies, Inc.

Langenburg Langenburg and District Activity Centre

Lloydminster The Bea Fisher Centre, Inc.

Maple Creek Maple Creek & District Opportunities, Inc.

Meadow Lake Multiworks Corporation

Melfort Plus Industries, Inc.

Melville Rail City Industries

Moose Jaw Moose Jaw Diversified Services for the Handicapped, Inc.

Moosomin Pipestone Kin-Ability Centre, Inc.

Nipawin Handiworks

N. Battleford Battlefords Trade & Education Centre, Inc.

Outlook Variety Place Association, Inc.

Porcupine Plain Porcupine Opportunities Program, Inc.

Preeceville Mackenzie Society Ventures, Inc.

Prince Albert Prince Albert Community Workshop Society, Inc.

Prince Albert Pine Industries

Redvers Redvers Activity Centre, Inc.

Regina Cosmo Activity Centre

Regina Harvest Industries, Inc.

Regina Saskatchewan Abilities Council

Rosetown Wheatland Regional Centre

Rosthern Valley Action Industries, Inc.

Saskatoon Saskatchewan Abilities Council

Shaunavon Cypress Hills Ability Centres, Inc.

Swift Current Southwest Ability Centre

Wadena Mallard Industries

Waldheim Menno Industries

Weyburn Weyburn Wor-Kin Shop

Yorkton Parkland Ability Centre

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Table of Contents

Appendix B - Funding Sources

Program - Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (VRDP) - is jointly funded by federal and provincial governments. This program provides financial assistance to disabled adults for assessments, training, and education, enabling them to gain skills necessary for competitive employment.

Eligibility - Referral must come from an authorized VRDP referral agency.

Contact - Saskatchewan Education, Training and Employment

2220 College Avenue

Regina, Sask.

S4P 3V7

Phone (306) 787-5602

Fax (306) 787-4700

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Program - Long Term Employment Initiative - Funding is provided for on-the-job training, job coaching, job maintenance and productivity support.

Eligibility - The individual must be an adult with a intellectual disability no longer attending school. They must be eligible for the Saskatchewan Assistance Plan and have potential for employment when provided with support.

Contact - Director of Vocational Services

Community Living Division

Saskatchewan Social Services

1920 Broad Street

Regina, Sask., S4P 3V6

Phone (306) 787-3944 (Regina)

(306) 694-3796 (Moose Jaw)

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 Program - Special Interest Co-op Small Business Loan - Up to

$5000.00 can be granted to persons with disabilities or to

advocates of persons with intellectual disabilities,

interested in starting a business.

Eligibility - An application must be completed and certain criteria met.

Contact - Special Interest Co-op

3 - 3012 Louise St.

Saskatoon, Sask.

S7J 3L8

Phone (306) 652-9600 or 652-2780

Fax (306) 652-2957

Special Interest Co-op 7603 Discovery Rd.

Regina, Sask.

S4Y 1A5

Phone (306) 949-9194

 
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Appendix C - Saskatchewan Employment Equity Practitioners Association
 

The Saskatchewan Employment Equity Practitioners Association is a non-profit organization of employers, unions and advocacy groups who develop and implement employment equity initiatives and programs. They promote awareness, education and support for managing diversity and employment equity issues. They attempt to eliminate barriers and maximize human potential.

Members Southern Branch

Bank of Montreal Phone (306) 569-5676

2103 11th Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 3B6 Fax (306) 569-5700

 

Cable Regina Phone (306) 565-5344

2250 Park Street

Regina, Sask. S4N 7K7

 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. Phone (306) 780-5911

P.O. Box 1186

Regina, Sask. S4P 3B6 Fax (306) 780-6645

 

Canadian National Institute Phone (306) 525-2571

for the Blind

2550 Broad Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 3Z4 Fax (306) 565-3300

 

CIBC (bank) Phone (306) 359-8324

3rd. Floor, 1800 Hamilton Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 4K7 Fax (306) 359-8371

 

City of Regina Phone (306) 777-7710

P.O. Box 1790

Regina, Sask. S4P 3C8 Fax (306) 525-1801

 

Co-operators Life Insurance Co. Phone (306) 347-6527

1920 College Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 1C4 Fax (306) 347-6806

 

Crown Investments Corporation Phone (306) 787-5856

300-2400 College Ave.

Regina, Sask. S4P 1C8

 

Crown Life Insurance Co. Phone (306) 751-6050

P.O. Box 827, 1901 Scarth St.

Regina, Sask. S4P 3B1 Fax (306) 751-6051

 

Disabilities Directorate Phone (306) 787-4532

1870 Albert Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-4038

 

Economic Development Phone (306) 787-0480

6th Floor, 1919 Saskatchewan Drive

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-3989

 

Employment Access Phone (306) 757-1223

210-2445 - 13th Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 0W1 Fax (306) 569-3668

 

Environment and Resources Mgt. Phone (306) 787-2858

3211 Albert Street

Regina, Sask. S0G 3Z0 Fax (306) 787-9374

 

Farm Credit Corporation Phone (306) 780-8575

P.O. Box 4320-1800 Hamilton St.

Regina, Sask. S4P 4L3 Fax (306) 780-5508

 

First Nations Employment Centre Phone (306) 924-1606

3639 Sherwood Drive

Regina, Sask. S4R 4A7 Fax (306) 949-0526

 

Human Resources Phone (306) 780-5015

Development Canada

714-2101 Scarth Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 2H9 Fax (306) 780-6227

 

Neil Squire Foundation Phone (306) 781-6023

2020 Halifax Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 1T7 Fax (306) 522-9474

 

New Careers Corporation Phone (306) 787-1803

2nd Floor - 1260 8th Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-5636

 

Public Service Commission Phone (306) 787-2424

2103 11th Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-7060

 

Rawlco Communications Ltd. Phone (306) 569-1300

210-2401 Saskatchewan Drive

Regina, Sask. S4P 4H8 Fax (306) 347-8557

 

Regina Health District- Phone (306) 359-5269

Wascana Rehabilitation Centre

2108 23rd Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4S 4L7

 

Regina Police Service Phone (306) 777-9737

1717 Osler St.

Regina, Sask. S4P 3W3 Fax (306) 757-5461

 

Regina Public Library Phone (306) 777-6072

P.O. Box 2311

Regina, Sask. S4P 3Z7 Fax (306) 352-5550

 

Royal Bank Phone (306) 780-2191

5th Floor 2010 - 11th Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 0J3 Fax (306) 780-2180

 

Saskatchewan Crop Insurance Corp. Phone (306) 728-7297

P O Box 3000

484 Prince William Drive

Melville, Sask. S0A 2P0 Fax (306) 728-7260

 

Saskatchewan Government Phone (306) 522-8571

Employees Union

1440 Broadway Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 1E2 Fax (306) 352-1969

 

Saskatchewan Highways & Transport Phone (306) 787-3889

7th Floor 1855 Victoria Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-8610

 

Saskatchewan Human Phone (306) 787-2394

Rights Commission

3rd Floor, 1942 Hamilton Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-0454

 

Saskatchewan Justice Phone (306) 787-3665

1874 Scarth Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-2084

 

Saskatchewan Opportunities Corp. Phone (306) 787-8580

6th Floor, Grenfell Tower

1945 Hamilton Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 2C7 Fax (306) 787-8515

 

Sask Power Phone (306) 566-2146

2025 Victoria Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 0S1 Fax (306) 566-2087

 

Sask Tel Phone (306) 777-2256

13th Floor, 2121 Saskatchewan Drive

Regina, Sask. S4P 3Y2 Fax (306) 359-0733

 

Sask Water Phone (306) 694-3992

Victoria Pl. 111 Fairford Street East

Moose Jaw, Sask. S6H 7X9 Fax (306) 694-3944

 

Sask Wheat Pool Phone (306) 569-4703

2625 Victoria Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4T 7T9 Fax (306) 569-4708

 

Saskatchewan Government Phone (306) 752-1644

Insurance (SGI)

2260-11th Avenue

Regina, Sask. S4P 0J9 Fax (306) 347-0089

 

Sherwood Credit Union Phone (306) 780-1797

1960 Albert Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 2T4 Fax (306) 525-5599

 

Southeastern Metis Phone (306) 332-5588

Development Corporation

Box 1188

Fort Qu'Appelle, Sask. S0G 1S0 Fax (306) 332-1869

 

SPMC Human Resources Phone (306) 787-6913

1840 Lorne Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 3V7 Fax (306) 787-1980

 

Toronto Dominion Bank Phone (306) 780-0261

1904 Hamilton Street

Regina, Sask. S4P 3N5 Fax (306) 585-5232

 

University of Regina Phone (306) 585-4164

3737 Wascana Parkway

Regina, Sask. S4S 0A2

 

Wascana Institute Phone (306) 787-0123

Box 556

Regina, Sask. S4P 3A3 Fax (306) 787-4278
 
 

Members Northern Branch
 

BBS Saskatchewan Inc. Phone (306) 665-8600

216 1st. Ave. North

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3W3 Fax (306) 665-0450

 

Canadian Imperial Bank of Phone (306) 445-6121

Commerce (CIBC)

Box 670, 1262 - 101st Street

North Battleford, Sask. S9A 2Y9 Fax (306) 445-7009

 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Phone (306) 975-4923

Corporation (CMHC)

Box 1107

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 2N2 Fax (306) 975-6066

 

Co-operative Health Centre Phone (306) 763-6464

110 8th Street East

Prince Albert, Sask. S6V 0V7 Fax (306) 763-2101

 

Correctional Services of Canada Phone (306) 975-4432

Box 9223 - 2313 Hanselman

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3X5

 

Develcon Electronics Ltd. Phone (306) 931-1391

856 - 51st Street East

Saskatoon, Sask. S7M 5B3 Fax (306) 931-1377

 

Extension Division Phone (306) 966-5553

University of Saskatchewan

Rm. 129 Kirk Hall U of S

Saskatoon, Sask. S7N 0W0 Fax (306) 966-5567

 

Federated Co-operatives Ltd. Phone (306) 244-3286

Box 1050

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3M9 Fax (306) 244-3403

 

Kelsey Institute Phone (306) 933-6462

P.O. 1520

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3R5 Fax (306) 933-6490

 

Revenue Canada Phone (306) 652-3211

340 - 3rd Avenue North

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 0A8 Fax (306) 975-4629

 

Saskatchewan Association of Phone (306) 933-0616

Rehabilitation Centres

111 Cardinal Crescent

Saskatoon, Sask. S7L 6H5 Fax (306) 653-3932

 

Saskatchewan Association for Phone (306) 955-3330

Community Living

3031 Louise Street

Saskatoon, Sask. S7J 3L1 Fax (306) 373-3070

 

Saskatchewan Research Council Phone (306) 933-8456

15 Innovation Boulevard.

Saskatoon, Sask. S7N 2X8 Fax (306) 933-7446

 

Saskatchewan Teachers Federation Phone (306) 373-1660

Box 1108

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3N3 Fax (306) 374-1122

 

University of Saskatchewan Phone (306) 966-6325

Personnel Dept. Admin. Building.

Saskatoon, Sask. S7N 0W0 Fax (306) 966-6815

 

William M. Mercer Limited Phone (306) 653-6227

#800 - 123 - 2nd Avenue South

Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 7E6 Fax (306) 244-0107

 
 
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References
 

AAMR board approves new MR definition. (1992, July/August). Copy Editor, 5, 5-6.

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Suggested Reading

Braddock, D. (1994). Presidential Address 1994: New frontiers in mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 32, 434-443.

Burnham, S. J., & Housley, W. F. (1992). Pride in work: Perceptions of employers, service providers and students who are mentally retarded and learning disabled. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 15, 101-108.

Fabian, E. S., Edelman, A., & Leedy, M. (1993). Linking workers with severe disabilities to social supports in the work place: Strategies for addressing barriers. Journal of Rehabilitation, 59, 29-34.

Goldberg, R. T., McLean, M. M., LaVigne, R., Fratolillo, J., & Sullivan, F. T. (1990). Transition of persons with developmental disability from extended sheltered employment to competitive employment. Mental Retardation, 28, 299-304.

Hall, P. S., & Wheeler, J.J. (1993). An exploratory resource allocation model for implementing supported employment services. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 28, 288-295.

McCaughrin, W. B., Warren, K. E., Rusch, F. R., & Heal, L. W. (1993). Cost effectiveness of supported employment. Mental Retardation, 31, 41-48.

Mueller, H., Wilgosh, L., & Dennis, S. (1989). Employment survival skills for entry-level occupations. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 2, 203-221.

Neubert, D. A., Tilson, G. P., & Ianacone, R. N., (1989). Post-secondary transition needs and employment patterns of individuals with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children, 55, 494-500.

Noble, J. H., Jr. & Conley, R. W. (1987). Accumulating evidence on the benefits and costs of supported and transitional employment for persons with severe disabilities. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 12, 163-174.

Rusch, F. R. (Ed.) (1986). Competitive Employment Issues and Strategies. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.

Rusch, F. R. (Ed.) (1990). Supported Employment: Models, Methods and Issues. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co.

Schafer, M. S., Banks, D. S., & Kregel, J. (1991). Employment retention and career movement among individuals with mental retardation working in supported employment. Mental Retardation, 29, 103-110.

Shafer, M. S., Rice, M. L., Metzler, H. M., & Haring, M. (1989). A survey of non-disabled employees' attitudes toward supported employees with mental retardation. Journal of The Association For Persons With Severe Handicaps, 14, 137-146.

Test, D. W., Keul, P., & Howell, A. (1993). Community resource trainers: Meeting the challenge of providing quality supported employment follow-along services. Journal of Rehabilitation, 59, 40-44.

Warth, S. (1990). Supported employment: A report of a successful enclave model. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 16, 57-63.

Wehmeyer, M. L., (1994). Employment status and perceptions of control of adults with cognitive and developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15, 119-131.

Wilgosh, L. & Mueller, H. (1989). Employer attitudes toward hiring individuals with mental disabilities. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 3, 43-47.
 

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