Board - CEO Review
By The SSTA Research Centre
SSTA Research Centre Report #97-03: 94 pages, $17.
 
Introduction and Overview This resource was developed by the Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit (SELU) for the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association and the Saskatchewan League of Educational Administrators, Directors and Superintendents. This set of materials, instruments and processes is provided for the use of boards and directors in performance review.

The performance of a board and its CEO is a collaborative effort, guided by a common understanding about the work of schools and what they should be doing. The materials in this document have been developed through a collaborative process involving the SSTA and LEADS representatives in order to make available a flexible, contextually relevant and current system for reviewing board and CEO performance. The intent is to highlight the mutual expectations of board and CEO as to the major aspects of their roles, and to provide clear identification of strengths and needed improvements.

Six modules, which can be adapted for use in whole or in part, are presented. Modules 1-3 pertain to board performance, and provide guidelines for the review of board context, mission and governance and performance in various areas of operation. Module 4 provides a review of the board-CEO relationship, and Modules 5 and 6 focus on the performance of the CEO, specifically as it relates to role performance, leadership and values/commitment.

The use of these materials represents an excellent opportunity to highlight successes and to provide a benchmark for improving performance. It also represents the board’s responsibility to be accountable to its publics by devoting systematic attention to how it is meeting its mandate. 

Module #1: Board Context Mission and Value
Module #2: Reviewing Board Performance According to Policy and Governance
Module #3: Reviewing Board Performance According to Operational Area
Module #4: Reviewing the Board/CEO Relationship
Module #5: Reviewing CEO Role Performance
Module #6: CEO Review Based Upon the Leads Leadership Model
Documents Central to the Review Process
  Back to: Governance

Introduction and Overview


BOARD/CEO REVIEW: INTRODUCTION


A core assumption underlying this collection of processes and materials is that the performance of a board and its CEO is a collaborative effort, guided by a common understanding about the work of schools and what they should be doing. This entails a mutual understanding of expectations for the role of the board, the role of the CEO and the role of both in concert.

In October, 1995 the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association contracted the Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit to develop strategies for board and CEO assessment. Specifically, four objectives were deemed to be important:

  1. The materials developed should facilitate a site-based self-assessment system which will normally lead to goal-setting;
  2. The materials are to be current, practical and manageable;
  3. The materials are to be systematic, comprehensive and implementable in whole or in part, depending upon the local situation;
  4. The materials are to reflect a strong Saskatchewan relevance.

Table of Contents


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


From the outset, the development of the project was collaborative in nature, in that it involved the work of a committee consisting of representatives of the Saskatchewan League of Educational Administrators, Directors and Superintendents and the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association as follows:

Mary Anderson (SSTA)

Ralph Eliasson (LEADS)

Dorothy Fortier (SSTA)

Shirley Gange (LEADS)

Al Klassen (SSTA)

Mike McLeod (LEADS)

Craig Melvin (SSTA)

Ivan Yackel (LEADS)

Joe Zolkavich (LEADS)

Six working meetings of this committee were held in October, 1995, January, February, May, October and December of 1996, at which time the committee provided ideas for the direction of the project and responded to suggested materials and processes. This document, and the principles which have been outlined to guide its use, is the result of those collaborative efforts.

Pat Renihan, Department of Educational Administration

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.

January, 1997


Table of Contents


WHY BOARD/CEO REVIEW?


A central and guiding principle emerging from discussions as to the nature of the assessment process is that the work of CEO and board are very much intertwined. The ever-present need to highlight the mutual and collaborative functions of board and director is therefore a significant aspect of the rationale for a collaboratively-based review processes.

In addition, referring to the logic of having regular and meaningful reviews of performance, several common and very powerful reasons need to be highlighted. First, assessment is an integral function through the school system. It applies as significantly to the work of CEO and board as it does to other responsibilities. Second, it represents the system's responsibility to be accountable to its publics by devoting systematic attention to how it is meeting its mandate. In this respect, the review process should be visible, rather than private and hidden. Third, and related to the previous rationale, it offers an excellent opportunity to highlight the features of a successful system and an effective CEO, that may be used as a benchmark for improving performance. Fourth, the process provides for the clarification and reinforcement of performance expectations. Fifth, it enhances the ability of the organization to learn and change. Finally, an effective and visible appraisal process can enhance the credibility of all participants.


Table of Contents


MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE BOARD/CEO REVIEW


In order for the process to be effective, to result in meaningful outcomes for the board and the system, four critical requirements should be theoretically in existence:

If one or more of these are not in place, this does not prohibit a board and CEO from engaging in significant review of their performance. However, an important early activity in the review process should be their discussion, resulting in arrangements to have them available for future board use.

In addition, several questions (based upon common barriers to effective review) are worth considering:


Table of Contents


BOARD/CEO REVIEW:

GUIDING PRINCIPLES


An Effective Board/Ceo Review Process:

  1. is oriented toward interdependence rather than isolation, building first and foremost on the integrated nature of the work of board and CEO.
  2. requires an educative and developmental orientation.
  3. is flexible: based upon guidelines rather than models.
  4. is wholistic, making all aspects of board/CEO work available for assessment.
  5. utilizes a variety of sources of feedback.
  6. is appropriately timed (when people are ready for it).
  7. is ongoing and sustained.
  8. is updatable.
  9. focuses upon beliefs and values guiding the system.
  10. focuses upon role clarification.
  11. is clear and simple.
  12. is based upon principles of fairness and natural justice.
  13. requires that all participants be fully aware of the intent and nature of the process.
  14. is ethical, that is while this should be a visible process, related to board/CEO accountability, it must also respect the confidentiality of information which in some cases will be required in the documentation of the performance of individuals.
In reference to outcomes, the review process: is clear as to responsibilities for outcomes.
  1. sensitizes the board to the needs of the CEO.
  2. sensitizes the CEO to the needs of the board.
  3. enhances the quality of communication within the board and within the system.
  4. provides for the clear identification of strengths and areas requiring improvement in board and/or CEO performance. It is strongly recommended that in every instance there be a written summary of the experience in some form.
Alternative processes for review:
  1. Effective organizations conduct some form of review at least once per year. A variety of patterns might be usefully employed. For example: The board may wish to review different aspects of performance at regularly held shorter (one-hour) meetings, engaging in informal discussion;
  2. The board may (as one approach) set aside one or two days away from the office to review preselected modules or subcomponents, based upon the prior choice of the board. It would be valuable to have had related data collected and summarized prior to these meetings. Outside help may also be useful in facilitating the process.
In any event, boards should vary process and focus to ensure as wide a coverage as possible. In all cases, there should be a debriefing, with a focus on the next review session.

The use of these materials:

The processes and instruments contained in this document may be used in whole or in part, and modified where considered necessary to suit individual board contexts and circumstances. The intent behind the modules and individual instruments is to facilitate choice and flexibility. This pertains also to the structure of particular instruments, where the desire of the users may be to modify the scales etc. as they see fit.


Table of Contents


BOARD/CEO REVIEW

A ROAD MAP TO THE PROCESS


The materials contained in this document have been designed to accommodate the guiding principles outlined above. They should provide an opportunity for:

The choices available to board and CEO are organized in six modules described according to their rationale and objectives as follows:

MODULE #1

BOARD CONTEXT MISSION AND VALUES



MODULE #2

REVIEWING BOARD PERFORMANCE:

POLICY AND GOVERNANCE



MODULE #3

REVIEWING BOARD PERFORMANCE ACCORDING TO OPERATIONAL AREA



MODULE #4

REVIEWING THE BOARD/CEO RELATIONSHIP



MODULE #5

REVIEWING CEO ROLE PERFORMANCE



MODULE #6

CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT



Table of Contents


BOARD CONTEXT MISSION AND VALUES


                                                                          
Guiding Question:                             

How do we view our purpose?                        


OBJECTIVES                           MATERIALS AVAILABLE                   

To provide for a discussion of the   The Broader Context of the System     
internal and broader contexts of     Getting a Reading of Internal         
the system and their implications    Context: A "Swot Analysis             
for the work of the board and CEO.   Mission and Values Based Board CEO    
To develop an understanding of the   Review                                
values and beliefs of the board in   Summary of Board Value Statements     
its various areas of operation.      School Trustee: A Code of             
To assess (individually) our own     Ethics-Based Self-Assessment          
commitment and adherence to the                                            
trustee code of ethics.


THE BROADER CONTEXT OF THE SYSTEM


The political, social and economic environments in which school boards work are always changing, and they have significant impacts upon the work of school systems. Consequently, no review of board/ceo performance can ignore these considerations. The better we understand them, the more effective we are in responding to the educational needs of our students.

Discuss the influences of the following on your system. Identify their implications for actions your board should be considering in the future:

How does the broader provincial community influence us as a board?

How supportive is the local community when it comes to educational matters?

How aware is the local community as to educational issues?

How involved are parents in their children's education?

What are the general characteristics of the professional staff:

e.g. Career Stage?

Experience?

Education/Professional Development?

How supportive are professionals when it comes to board/CEO initiatives?

What is the climate for collaboration among staff in this system?

In order of priority, what needs board action (either long-term or short-term) from the foregoing discussion:


GETTING A READING OF INTERNAL CONTEXT:

A "SWOT" ANALYSIS


The SWOT analysis was suggested by Newberry (1992) as an important initial step in the strategic planning process employed by school systems. It involves the identification of strengths(S), weaknesses(W), opportunities(O), and threats(T). This has significant possibilities as a useful first step in the board-director appraisal process in that it can help to clarify the broader issues facing the board. It can also provide an underlying perspective for some of the more specific assessments which may be made later in the process.

_____________________________________________________________________

WHAT ARE OUR

MAJOR STRENGTHS?

_____________________________________________________________________________

WHAT ARE OUR

MAJOR WEAKNESSES?

______________________________________________________________________________

WHAT ARE THE OPPORTUNITIES

CURRENTLY FACING US?

______________________________________________________________________________

WHAT ARE THE THREATS

CONFRONTING US?

______________________________________________________________________________


Table of Contents


MISSION AND VALUES BASED BOARD-CEO REVIEW


Carver(1990) points out that "creating 'ends' policies with a long-range perspective is the greatest board contribution to long-range planning" (p.74). He suggests a process of value choice by the board, in which it first determines its mission, following which it establishes those aspects of its mandate about which it feels strongly enough to make further pronouncements.

MISSION

"A general statement which reflects the central focus of a board's activities"

Among the critical characteristics of a board's mission identified by Carver are the following:

RESULTS TERMINOLOGY : Change itself is the mission. The Mission statement should not be couched in terms of activities needed to bring about change.

SUCCINCTNESS : Ideally stated in a few words - no more than a sentence.

AUTHORITATIVE GENERATION : The board itself is actively involved in determining the mission.

UBIQUITY : The mission should appear on all documents, interactions etc. It should be "lived", and should represent the "bottom line" in all the system's activities.

EXAMPLES:

ARTICULATING THE BOARD'S MISSION

I see the mission of this school board as being........

Our shared understanding of the mission of this board is........

Our board mission is........

GUIDING VALUES:

WHAT DO WE BELIEVE?

To enable boards to approach choices systematically and with a clear perspective, general but focused statements about what it believes, can provide a valuable guide for its work and its relationship to its chief executive officer.


Table of Contents


SCHOOL TRUSTEE:

A CODE OF ETHICS-BASED SELF-ASSESSMENT

(Source: Saskatchewan Board Member Code of Ethics)


Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4  High                                   Low  1  2  3  4 High               

        ________    I am motivated primarily by an              _______     
                    earnest desire to serve my                              
                    district or unit, and the children                      
                    of my community in the best way.                        

        ________    I endeavour to attend all board             ________    
                    meetings.                                               

        ________    I recognize that the expenditure            ________    
                    of school funds is a public trust,                      
                    and I endeavour to see that all                         
                    such funds shall be expended                            
                    efficiently, economically, and for                      
                    the best interest of the schools.                       

        ________    I do not use the schools or any             ________    
                    part of the school program for my                       
                    own personal advantage or for the                       
                    advantage of my friends.                                

        ________    I do everything possible to                 ________    
                    maintain the integrity, confidence                      
                    and dignity of the office of                            
                    school trustee.                                         

        ________    I listen to what other board                ________    
                    members and other individuals or                        
                    groups may have to say before                           
                    making final decisions.                                 

        ________    I endeavour to avoid rancor and             ________    
                    bitterness, to observe proper                           
                    decorum and behaviour, to                               
                    encourage full and open                                 
                    discussions in all matters with my                      
                    fellow members of the board, to                         
                    treat them with respect and                             
                    consideration, and not to withhold                      
                    or conceal from them any                                
                    information or matter in which                          
                    they should be concerned.                               


        ________    I make no disparaging remarks, in           ________    
                    or out of the board meeting, about                      
                    other members of the board or                           
                    their opinions, but I reserve the                       
                    right to make honest and                                
                    respectful criticism.                                   

        ________    I recognize that authority rests            ________    
                    with the board in legal session,                        
                    and not with individual members of                      
                    the board.                                              

        ________    I abide by majority decisions of            ________    
                    the board once they are made, and                       
                    I accept and support them so long                       
                    as I remain a member of the board,                      
                    but at the time I seek re-election                      
                    to the board I shall be free to                         
                    repeat and support the minority                         
                    opinion that I upheld when the                          
                    decision was made.                                      

        ________    I do not discuss the confidential           ________    
                    business of the board in my home,                       
                    on the street, or in my office,                         
                    the place for such discussion                           
                    being the school board meeting or                       
                    a committee meeting thereof.                            

        ________    I endeavour to keep informed on             ________    
                    all local, provincial, and                              
                    national educational developments                       
                    or significance.                                        

        ________    I earnestly try to interpret the            ________    
                    needs and attitudes of the entire                       
                    area of administration, and do my                       
                    best to translate them into the                         
                    educational program of the                              
                    schools.                                                

Table of Contents


MODULE #2

REVIEWING BOARD PERFORMANCE:

POLICY AND GOVERNANCE


                                                                          
Guiding Question:                             

How does the board work?                          



OBJECTIVES                           MATERIALS AVAILABLE                   

To provide an opportunity to         Reviewing Board Performance from a    
clarify and/or review the functions  Policy-Based Role Description         
of the board.                        School Board Self-Review: Conditions  
To review and assess board           of Flawed Governance                  
performance on the basis of recent                                         
literature on governance and                                               
policy.                                                                    
To identify strengths,                                                     
improvements, and current                                                  
responsibility for related actions.


Table of Contents


REVIEWING BOARD PERFORMANCE FROM A POLICY-BASED ROLE DESCRIPTION


The job products of a board have been described in the following terms:

1. LINKAGE TO THE OWNERSHIP:

Acting in trusteeship for its community.

2. EXPLICIT GOVERNING POLICIES:

Which encompass the values and perspectives of the system.

3. ASSURANCE OF EXECUTIVE PERFORMANCE:

Ensuring that staff meet the criteria it has set, thereby fulfilling the board's accountability for that performance.

These constitute the board's specific job responsibility and, when accomplished, ensure the accountability of the board. Consequently, several basic questions in each of these areas deserve attention when the board and CEO review performance.

LINKAGE TO THE OWNERSHIP:

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                

        ________    The board listens to all relevant           ________    
                    groups in the community.                                

        ________    The board actively seeks input              ________    
                    from community groups.                                  

        ________    Board members behave in the belief          ________    
                    that they are moral trustees for                        
                    the community.                                          

        ________    The board gather evidence of                ________    
                    community concerns, needs demands                       
                    and fears.                                              

        ________    The board encourages the personal           ________    
                    contribution of community members                       
                    through presentations at board                          
                    meetings, dialogue with trustees                        
                    or focus groups.                                        

        ________    The board seeks to nurture                  ________    
                    linkages to the community and to                        
                    various groups within.                                  


EXPLICIT GOVERNING POLICIES:
Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                

        ________    The board is concerned with the             ________    
                    broader context, in addition to                         
                    internal organizational matters as                      
                    it goes about its work.                                 

        ________    The board is clear as to its                ________    
                    distinction between 'ends'                              
                    (results) and 'means' (the                              
                    activities through which they are                       
                    to be accomplished.                                     

        ________    The board has a clearly                     ________    
                    articulated mission to guide its                        
                    work.                                                   

        ________    The values or beliefs of the board          ________    
                    are clearly stated in its major                         
                    policy areas.                                           

        ________    The board promotes effective                ________    
                    long-term planning.                                     

        ________    The board is appropriately devoted          ________    
                    to evaluating what it has set as                        
                    'ends' and how the system is                            
                    achieving them.                                         
ASSURANCE OF EXECUTIVE PERFORMANCE:
Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                

        ________    The position of CEO is clearly              ________    
                    defined by the board.                                   

        ________    The board communicates with its             ________    
                    CEO as a board rather an as                             
                    individual trustees.                                    

        ________    The board views the CEO as the              ________    
                    topmost single person reporting to                      
                    it, and accountable to it.                              


        ________    The board holds the CEO                     ________    
                    accountable for the entire                              
                    divisions working up to                                 
                    expectations.                                           

        ________    The relationship between the CEO            ________    
                    and individual trustees views as                        
                    collegial.                                              

        ________    The board monitors CEO performance          ________    
                    on the basis of preestablished and                      
                    clear criteria.                                         

Table of Contents


SCHOOL BOARD SELF-REVIEW

CONDITIONS OF FLAWED GOVERNANCE


Board Self-Reflection

Time On The Trivial

(Items of trivial scope or import get disproportionate attention compared to matters of greater importance).

________________________________________________________

Short Term Bias

(The board deals far more with the past and the near-term, than with the long-term issues). Comments:

______________________________________________________

Reactive Stance

(The board finds itself reacting to staff initiatives rather than acting proactively). Comments:

________________________________________________________

Reviewing, Rehashing, Redoing

(The board spends most of its time going over what its staff has already done). Comments:

________________________________________________________

Leaky Accountability

(The board goes 'around' the CEO, relating officially to other staff). Comments:

________________________________________________________

Diffuse Authority

(In the board - executive partnership, each party's authority has not beenclarified). Comments:

________________________________________________________

From my perspective as an individual trustee, I believe we need to work on....

_____________________________________________________________________


Table of Contents


MODULE #3

REVIEWING BOARD PERFORMANCE

ACCORDING TO OPERATIONAL AREA


                                                                          
Guiding Question:                             

How might the board improve its performance?                



OBJECTIVES                           MATERIALS AVAILABLE                   

To provide for an assessment of      Board Chairperson Self Assessment     
board performance on one or more of  Instrument                            
its major areas of operation,        Policy Development                    
through self assessment, internal    Community Relations                   
discussion, or assessment by other   Communications                        
constituent groups.                  Financial Management Facilities and   
To identify strengths, needed        Transportation                        
improvements, and responsibility     Goals of Education: Discussion of     
for related actions.                 Board Initiatives                     
Personnel                             
Program                               
Board Operation and Meetings          


Table of Contents


BOARD CHAIRPERSON SELF ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT


Ask yourself these questions about your responsibilities and performance as Chairperson of the Board of Education in this school system. Check the appropriate response as to the importance of each item, and your performance on it.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                



        ________    I do a good job of keeping                  _______     
                    up-to-date on information and                           
                    issues concerning the board.                            

        ________    I ensure that I am well informed            ________    
                    about the agenda prior to each                          
                    meeting of the board.                                   

        ________    I refrain from dominating                   ________    
                    discussion, or becoming                                 
                    excessively involved in                                 
                    articulating my viewpoint while                         
                    chairing board meetings.                                

        ________    For the most part, I remain                 ________    
                    impartial during the course of                          
                    discussions in regular board                            
                    meetings.                                               

        ________    I ensure that I set adequate time           ________    
                    aside from my own schedule to                           
                    perform the duties of the chair.                        

        ________    I do a good job of moving meetings          ________    
                    along at a reasonable pace.                             

        ________    I ensure that proper rules of               ________    
                    procedure are followed for each                         
                    public meeting of the board.                            

        ________    I ensure that all trustees are              ________    
                    given an adequate opportunity to                        
                    contribute to board discussions.                        

        ________    I ensure that the right of                  ________    
                    individuals to dissent is honoured                      
                    during all meetings.                                    


        ________    I do an effective job as                    ________    
                    spokes-person of the board to the                       
                    public.                                                 

        ________    I communicate effectively with the          ________    
                    media on matters relating to                            
                    school system issues and                                
                    directions.                                             

        ________    I ensure that board meetings begin          ________    
                    on time.                                                

        ________    I do not allow board meetings to            ________    
                    become excessively long.                                

        ________    I ensure that delegations and               ________    
                    presenters at the board meetings                        
                    are treated hospitably and                              
                    respectfully.                                           

        ________    I ensure that clear rules are               ________    
                    followed for public presentations.                      

        ________    I do a good job of securing the             ________    
                    support of other trustees for my                        
                    work as board chair.                                    

        ________    I am well informed as to the                ________    
                    statutory       responsibilities                        
                    of boards of education.                                 

        ________    I am familiar with the Code of              ________    
                    Ethics governing the behavior of                        
                    trustees and boards in this                             
                    province.                                               

        ________    I do a good job of organizing and           ________    
                    monitoring the committee structure                      
                    of the board.                                           

        ________    I keep up-to-date on current                ________    
                    educational issues and positions.                       

        ________    I am aware of the distinction               ________    
                    between policy making and                               
                    administration, and the respective                      
                    responsibilities of trustees and                        
                    administrators in these areas.                          

Table of Contents


POLICY DEVELOPMENT


For each item, check your perception of its importance, and your board's performance, in the appropriate columns.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                



        ________    The board seeks the advice/input            _______     
                    of key groups prior to finalizing                       
                    policy for the system.                                  

        ________    The board continually reviews the           ________    
                    policy needs of the school system.                      

        ________    The board carefully considers the           ________    
                    potential effects of proposed                           
                    policies.                                               

        ________    The board regularly assesses the            ________    
                    viability of existing policies to                       
                    ensure they are fulfilling the                          
                    purpose initially intended.                             

        ________    The board maintains policy in a             ________    
                    written, codified, updated manner.                      

        ________    The board develops a written                ________    
                    system philosophy, and a                                
                    philosophical basis for all major                       
                    policy areas.                                           

Table of Contents


COMMUNITY RELATIONS


For each item, check your perception of its importance and your board's performance, in the appropriate columns.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                



        ________    The board provides for regular              _______     
                    meetings with representatives of                        
                    other agencies, governing bodies                        
                    and community groups to discuss                         
                    issues of mutual concern.                               

        ________    The board encourages the public to          ________    
                    attend board meetings.                                  

        ________    The board is aware of the                   ________    
                    attitudes of the community and                          
                    special interest groups regarding                       
                    aspects of board operation.                             

        ________    The board has an effective policy           ________    
                    for     community use of school                         
                    facilities.                                             

        ________    The board effectively utilizes the          ________    
                    advice of informed individuals and                      
                    citizen groups in dealing with                          
                    difficult issues.                                       

        ________    The board involves the community            ________    
                    effectively in systematic needs                         
                    assessment regarding the                                
                    priorities of the school system.                        

        ________    The board deals effectively with            ________    
                    complaints and grievances of                            
                    community members.                                      

        ________    When addressing issues in public,           ________    
                    members are explicit as to when                         

                    they are giving their personal                          
                    opinion and when they are giving                        
                    the board's opinion.                                    

Table of Contents


COMMUNICATIONS


For each item, check your perception of its importance, and your board's performance, in the appropriate column.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                

        ________    The board informs the public                _______     
                    effectively on educational topics                       
                    and school system developments.                         

        ________    The board makes meeting agenda              ________    
                    available to the media in advance                       
                    of meetings.                                            

        ________    The board makes minutes of regular          ________    
                    meetings available to the staff                         
                    and      the public.                                    

        ________    The board has an active and well             ________   
                    planned program of public                               
                    information about education in the                      
                    school system.                                          

        ________    The board consults with staff,              ________    
                    parents, community groups, prior                        
                    to making major policy decisions.                       

        ________    The board communicates effectively          ________    
                    with staff throughout the system.                       

        ________    The board ensures that current              ________    
                    board policies and information on                       
                    board      initiatives are                              
                    available to staff.                                     

        ________    The board maintains effective               ________    
                    lines of communication with other                       
                    levels of government.                                   

        ________    The board maintains effective               ________    
                    lines of communication with local                       
                    and      provincial organizations                       
                    of teachers and other staff.                            

        ________    The board maintains honest, open            ________    
                    communication among members of                          
                    the board.                                              

Table of Contents


FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FACILITIES AND TRANSPORTATION


For each item, check your perception of its importance, and your board's performance, in the appropriate columns.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                

        ________    The board takes a leadership role           _______     
                    in securing community support for                       
                         additional funding when                            
                    necessary.                                              

        ________    The board considers the financial           ________    
                    needs of the school system in                           
                    terms of both the quality of                            
                    education that should be provided                       
                    and the ability of the community                        
                    to support it.                                          

        ________    Travel and convention expenses for          ________    
                    trustees and senior personnel are                       
                    supported by documentation.                             

        ________    School board members are kept               ________    
                    informed, at least once per month,                      
                    of the budget status.                                   

        ________    School board members refrain from           ________    
                    conflict-of-interest situations.                        

        ________    The board maintains up-to-date and          ________    
                    adequate insurance coverage for                         
                      property, liability etc.                              

        ________    The board has clear written                 ________    
                    policies for the efficient                              
                    operation of the purchasing,                            
                    payroll, accounting functions of                        
                    the system.                                             

        ________    The board authorizes budgetary              ________    
                    provisions only after a review of                       
                    the philosophy and requirements of                      
                    the system as a whole.                                  

        ________    The board makes provision in its            ________    
                    long term planning for school                           
                    buildings, and facility needs                           
                    based upon sound enrolment                              
                    projection and assessment of                            
                    facilities.                                             

        ________    The board provides effectively for          ________    
                    the maintenance of physical plant                       
                    in the system.                                          

        ________    The board provides effectively for          ________    
                    a student transportation system in                      
                    accordance with the Education Act,                      
                    and system policy.                                      

Table of Contents


PERSONNEL


For each item, check your perception of its importance, and your board's performance, in the appropriate columns.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                


        ________    The board praises staff for a job           _______     
                    well done.                                              

        ________    The board has established policy            _______     
                    covering major aspects of                               
                    personnel administration.                               

        ________    The board has established                   _______     
                    procedures for selection of                             
                    personnel on the basis of merit,                        
                    without discrimination.                                 

        ________    The board has provided an                   ________    
                    effective program of employee                           
                    evaluation/supervision.                                 

        ________    The board has a well defined plan           ________    
                         for administrator evaluation.                      

        ________    The board has provided for                  ________    
                    adequate orientation to new staff.                      

        ________    The board has procedures in place           ________    
                    for dealing with the grievances of                      
                    employees.                                              

        ________    The board has established                   ________    
                    effective relationships with its                        
                    local teachers' association.                            

        ________    The board has effective policies            ________    
                    and procedures for working with                         
                    non-      teaching support staff                        
                    and their organizations.                                

        ________    The board provides opportunity for          ________    
                    all staff to develop                                    
                    professionally.

Table of Contents


STUDENT LEARNING


For each item, check your perception of its importance, and your board's performance, in the appropriate columns.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                


        ________    The board strives to meet the               ________    
                    educational needs of all students                       
                    within the limits of available                          
                    resources.                                              

        ________    The board devotes sufficient time           ________    
                    at board meetings for the                               
                    discussion of instructional                             
                    matters.                                                

        ________    The board requires periodic                 ________    
                    evaluation of all educational                           
                    programs to determine their                             
                    currency and effectiveness.                             

        ________    The board reviews the requirements          ________    
                    for programs for special needs                          
                    students and provides the best                          
                    programs it can to meet individual                      
                    needs.                                                  


        ________    The board encourages input related          ________    
                    to the improvement of the                               
                    curriculum from staff and other                         
                    groups.                                                 

        ________    The board regularly reports to the          ________    
                    public on the effectiveness of the                      
                    instructional program and on                            
                    program initiatives.

Table of Contents


GOALS OF EDUCATION:

DISCUSSION OF BOARD INITIATIVES


According to the Saskatchewan Goals Statement, "A body of knowledge and a range of skills and attitudes are necessary to function in a changing world". How successful have you as a board been in ensuring success in each of the following goal areas? Check pp. 87-89 for a complete definition of each area.


  BROAD GOALS OF    How will we know      How are we         What needs to be  
EDUCATION         if we are doing a     addressing this    done?        
good job?             goal?                           


   BASIC SKILLS                                                              



LIFELONG LEARNING                                                            



UNDERSTANDING AND                                                            
   RELATING TO                                                               
      OTHERS                                                                 


   SELF-CONCEPT                                                              
   DEVELOPMENT                                                               



     POSITIVE                                                                
    LIFESTYLE                                                                




    SPIRITUAL                                                                
   DEVELOPMENT                                                               



 CAREER/CONSUMER                                                             
    DECISIONS                                                                



  MEMBERSHIP IN                                                              
     SOCIETY                                                                 



   GROWING WITH                                                              
      CHANGE                                                                 

Table of Contents


BOARD OPERATION AND MEETINGS


For each item, check your perception of its importance, and your board's performance, in the appropriate columns.

Importance                                              Performance         
Low  1  2  3  4                                         Low  1  2  3  4     
High                                                    High                


        ________    Members receive agenda and                  ________    
                    materials in time to be                                 
                    sufficiently prepared for the                           
                    meetings.                                               

        ________    The board has a suitable setting            ________    
                    for the conduct of its meetings.                        

        ________    Members come to the meetings                ________    
                    prepared to contribute to agenda                        
                       discussions.                                         

        ________    Visitors are made to feel welcome           ________    
                    at the board meetings.                                  

        ________    Meetings begin on time.                     ________    

        ________    Adequate time is devoted to                 ________    
                    important issues.                                       

        ________    Discussions at the board table are          ________    
                    well controlled.                                        

        ________    Members deal respectfully with              ________    
                    fellow trustees and other                               
                    participants.                                           

        ________    Members deal respectfully with              ________    
                    fellow trustees and other                               
                    participants.                                           

        ________    Board decisions are usually well            ________    
                       thought out and carefully                            
                    discussed.                                              

        ________    Trustees respect the need for               ________    
                    confidentiality on some issues.                         

        ________    Decisions are supported by                  ________    
                    trustees regardless of original                         
                    position on issues.                                     


        ________    Members are confident in bringing           ________    
                    concerns and ideas to the table.                        

        ________    Conflicts are dealt with                    ________    
                    effectively.                                            

Table of Contents


MODULE #4

REVIEWING THE BOARD - CEO RELATIONSHIP


                                                                          
Guiding Question:                             

What kind of relationship is desirable?                  



OBJECTIVES                            MATERIALS AVAILABLE                   

To clarify and/or review the job      Reviewing/Developing a CEO Position   
description of the CEO.               Description                           
To clarify the mutual expectations    CEO Functions                         
held by board and CEO for             Clarifying the Expectations: The      
another.                              Board - CEO Psychological Contract    
To assess the specifics of the        The Changing Psychological Contract   
relationship between board and CEO.   Board-CEO Relations                   
To identify strengths, needed         Trustee Self Assessment:              
improvements, and responsibility      Relationship with the CEO             
for related actions.


Table of Contents


REVIEWING/DEVELOPING A CEO POSITION DESCRIPTION


The position description should include the following information:

TITLE:

QUALIFICATIONS:

REPORTS TO:

CORE FUNCTION:

DETAILS OF PERFORMANCE

RESPONSIBILITIES:

_________________________________________________

* The list of CEO responsibilities on the following pages should provide focus for this exercise. However, items should be based upon local context and should be discussed by board and CEO.

* Where a position description is already in place, it may be useful to review it along the lines of the accompanying list.


Table of Contents


Reviewing/Developing a CEO Position Description


CEO FUNCTIONS


PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL


Key qualities which enable the director to relate effectively with the board, system employees and the public.

  1. To develop a clear understanding of the expectations the Board has for the CEO role in the school division.
  2. To communicate openly and effectively with trustees.
  3. To exercise fair-mindedness in dealings with the employees of the system.
  4. To openly respect and trust the board.
  5. To be reliable in meeting the commitments made to the board.
  6. To be flexible and creative in approaching change in the system.
  7. To demonstrate skills of conflict management.

Table of Contents


PURPOSE AND DIRECTION


Clear understanding of the future directions of the board and the system, together with a clear sense of one's own vision and value system.

  1. To be aware of the goals and priorities of the system.
  2. To communicate expectations of the board and system clearly to its employees.
  3. To be able to identify current issues, problems, or projects that most concern the board.
  4. To have a clear idea as to one's own priorities and goals for one's work in the system.
  5. To have means and criteria for knowing when these priorities and goals are being met.

Table of Contents


TECHNICAL/MANAGERIAL


Ability to organize and expedite the general operation of the system in accordance with provincial and board regulation. Facility with business and human resources.

  1. To manage the paperwork associated with the position effectively.
  2. To effectively monitor and respond to the changing human resources needs in the system.
  3. To understand and effectively direct the financial and business affairs of the system.
  4. To delegate appropriately in approaching the decision-making functions.

Table of Contents


EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP


Ability to work effectively with system staff to develop, implement and evaluate the educational program. Ability to facilitate instrumental growth through supervision and staff development.

  1. To devote serious attention to creating and maintaining a high level of morale and a positive climate in the system.
  2. To exercise effective supervision of professional staff in the system.
  3. To regularly monitor the effectiveness of the schools and programs in the system.
  4. To keep adequately informed as to recent developments in curriculum and teaching, and related technologies.

Table of Contents


POLITICAL SKILLS


Assumption of a strong advocacy role for the system. Ability to work with an elected board.

  1. To communicate effectively with the parents and the general community.
  2. To keep abreast of changes in government directives which have implications for the system.
  3. To work to improve the image of the system in the broader community.
  4. To seek to influence government concerning the emerging needs of the system.

Table of Contents


CLARIFYING THE EXPECTATIONS:

THE BOARD - CEO PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT


The notion of the psychological contract as developed by Schein (1980) implies that there is an unwritten set of expectations operating at all times between the individual and the employing organization. Some of these expectations are fairly clear as they relate to benefits, working hours, working privileges etc. while other are less explicit and relate to things like loyalty, opportunity for growth, consistent and fair feedback about performance, security in the job etc. The organization, also has its expectations for the individual: for example, that they will enhance the organization's reputation, that they will do their best for the organization, that they will be committed to their responsibilities and so on.

In the context of the relationship between the CEO and the board, this set of expectations has considerable significance for the way in which CEO and board work with one another. Consequently, clarifying what these expectations are is a matter of effective communication and may be a useful early exercise as board and CEO review their performance.

What are the major expectations which CEO and board currently have for one another? It is suggested that the following steps be used:

  1. Discuss Changing expectations. That is, what are the current forces (e.g. declining financial resources) that are currently influencing/changing the expectations which boards and CEO have for one another?
  2. Identify major expectations individually. The CEO and each trustee identify their perceptions as to the major expectations each party holds for the other.
  3. In joint CEO-Board Session, discuss these expectations in turn with a view to clarifying perceptions and interpretations. (In keeping with the principle of speaking to the CEO with one voice, the perceptions of individual trustees must have the agreement of the remaining board members.)
  4. Record completed/finalized expectations on the CEO-Board form (next page).

Table of Contents


CLARIFYING THE EXPECTATIONS: THE BOARD-CEO PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

(CEO- BOARD FORM)


_____________________________________________________________________

WHAT THE BOARD EXPECTS OF THE CEO

WHAT THE CEO EXPECTS OF THE BOARD

_____________________________________________________________________


Table of Contents


BOARD - CEO RELATIONS


For each item, check your perception of your board's performance in the appropriate column.

Excellent Adequate Needs Improvement

1. The board works with the CEO in a climate of mutual respect and professional confidence. ____ ____ ____

2. The board consults with the CEO immediately on issues which may alienate board members or CEO if left undiscussed. ____ ____ ____

3. The board provides opportunity and encouragement for the CEO's professional growth. ____ ____ ____

4. The board makes decisions after the CEO has made related recommendations and these have been considered in an unbiased, objective manner. ____ ____ ____

5. The board reaches decisions only after study of all available background information. ____ ____ ____

6. The board requests information through the CEO, and only from other personnel with the knowledge of the CEO ____ ____ ____

7. The board keeps the CEO informed of issues and complaints allowing adequate time to deal with them. ____ ____ ____

8. The board supports the decisions and the work of the CEO in communications with the public, and coveys any disagreement in private session. ____ ____ ____

9. The board provides adequate time for the CEO to plan. ____ ____ ____

10. The board maintains a CEO salary comparable to salaries paid in similar positions elsewhere. ____ ____ ____

Adapted from: Director Appraisal Regina: SSTA. 1984


Table of Contents


TRUSTEE SELF ASSESSMENT:

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CEO


Ask yourself these questions about your relationships with your CEO. Check the appropriate column indicating "Yes" or "No". YES NO

1. Can you differentiate between your responsi- bility and that of your CEO? ___ ___

2. If asked to describe how your CEO spends most of his/her day, could you accurately do so? ___ ___

3. Can you identify the issue or problem that most concerns your CEO at this time? ___ ___

4. Do you openly respect and trust your CEO? ___ ___

5. Do you publicly give the CEO your support and encouragement? ___ ___

6. Do you alert the CEO to issues you will raise at board meetings, by placing them on the agenda, or discussing them ahead of time? ___ ___

7. Do you keep all confidences shared by your CEO? ___ ___

8. Do you communicate your expectations of the CEO directly to him/her? ___ ___

9. Do you do your preparation before coming to board meetings? ___ ___

10. Do you understand and use the procedure for handling complaints? ___ ___

11. Do you seriously consider and weigh all recommendations the CEO makes? ___ ___

12. Can you honestly say you make your decisions based on the information provided, and not on any preconceived ideas? ___ ___

13. Do you ask the CEO only for the information you really need to make a decision on an issue? ___ ___

14. Do you accept and approve most personnel recommendations made by the CEO? ___ ___

15. Do you think having good rapport with the CEO is important? ___ ___

16. Can you be friendly with the CEO and respect his/her opinions, even when you disagree with them? ___ ___

17. Do you usually tell the CEO what's on your mind before you tell it to everyone else? ___ ___

II. a) What were the most important accomplishments of the Board in the last school year?

_________________________________________________________________

b) What is the most pressing problem in this school system?

_________________________________________________________________


MODULE #5

REVIEWING CEO ROLE PERFORMANCE


                                                                          
Guiding Question:                             

How might the CEO improve performance?                   



OBJECTIVES                           MATERIALS AVAILABLE                   

To identify the variety of CEO       CEO Review: Alternative Models        
assessment models available for      CEO Review: Sources of Feedback       
use.                                 CEO Role Performance Review: General  
To provide for an assessment of the  Overview                              
CEO on one or more of her/his areas  Chief Executive Officer Self          
of responsibility, through self      Assessment Instrument                 
assessment, board-CEO discussion or  Chief Executive Officer Assessment    
by other constituent groups.         Instrument: Board Form                
To identify strengths, needed        Director Assessment Instrument:       
improvements and responsibility for  Teacher Form                          
related actions.                     CEO-Board Conference                  
Objectives-Based Board/CEO            
Discussion


Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW: SOURCES OF FEEDBACK


As stated earlier, one characteristic of an effective board/CEO review process is that it utilizes a variety of sources of feedback. This principle is of the heart of the "360 feedback process" which has gained favour in employee assessment in a variety of organizational contexts, both public and private sector, in recent years (Edwards and Ewan, 1995). The intent of the 360 feedback process is to provide a multisource assessment system in order to "support people and encourage their continued improvement through the use of high quality information" (p.20). In the context of the CEO review, that multisource system might be depicted as follows:


Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW: ALTERNATIVE MODELS


It has already been suggested that board and CEO vary the review process over time, to ensure as wide a coverage as possible. Numerous approaches are possible:

                                                                           
Formal Board/CEO             Periodic exchanges about CEO performance,     
Conferences                  based upon data formally collected.           



Informal board judgment      Feedback presented to the CEO usually once    
                             per year.                                     



Unsolicited information      Board/CEO discussions based upon comments     
from                         from parents, teachers, etc.                  
various groups/individuals                                                 



Checklists/rating scales     Ratings of performance by one or more groups  
                             on a structured form.                         



Management by objectives     Assessment by the board, and sometimes an     
                             external individual, against pre-established  
                             performance objectives.                       



Self-evaluation              Utilizing rating scales, objectives, or       
                             general measures, the CEO provides an         
                             assessment of his/her own performance.        



Student outcomes-based       The use of pupil performance/standardized     
review                       tests over time as an assessment gauge.       



School system audits and     Judgment about CEO performance based upon     
effectiveness reviews        self-study by the system.                     



CEO portfolio                Periodic examination, by the board, of        
                             accountability records, with input from a     
                             variety of resources, compiled by the CEO.    

Table of Contents


CEO ROLE PERFORMANCE REVIEW:

GENERAL OVERVIEW


Assessment can be made in one or more of five areas: personal-professional leadership, purpose and direction, technical-managerial skills, educational leadership and political skills. These areas are defined as follows:

                                                                           
PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL           Key qualities which enable the director    
                                to relate effectively with the board,      
                                system employees and the public.           




PURPOSE AND DIRECTION           Clear understanding of the future          
                                directions of the board and the system,    
                                together with a clear sense of one's own   
                                vision and value system.                   




TECHNICAL/MANAGERIAL            Ability to organize and expedite the       
                                general operation of the system in         
                                accordance with provincial and board       
                                regulation; facility with business and     
                                human resources.                           




EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP          Ability to work effectively with system    
                                staff to develop, implement and evaluate   
                                the educational program. Ability to        
                                facilitate instrumental growth through     
                                supervision and staff development.         




POLITICAL SKILL                 Assumption of a strong advocacy role for   
                                the system. Ability to work with an        
                                elected board.                             

Table of Contents


CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER SELF ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT


Ask yourself these questions about your responsibilities and performance as Director of Education in this school system. Circle the appropriate response.

A. PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL

                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Do you have a clear understanding              1        2        3       4     
of the expectations the Board has                                              
for your role in this school                                                   
division?                                                                      

Do you communicate openly and                  1        2        3       4     
effectively with your trustees?                                                

Do you exercise fair-mindedness                1        2        3       4     
in your dealings with the                                                      
employees of this system?                                                      

Do you openly respect and trust                1        2        3       4     
your board?                                                                    

Are you reliable in meeting the                1        2        3       4     
commitments made to your board?                                                

Are you flexible and creative in               1        2        3       4     
your approach to change in this                                                
system?                                                                        

Do you demonstrate effective                   1        2        3       4     
skills of conflict management?                                                 
B. PURPOSE AND DIRECTION
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Are you aware of the goals and                 1        2        3       4     
priorities of this system?                                                     

Do you communicate expectations                1        2        3       4     
of the board and system clearly                                                
to its employees?                                                              

Can you identify the issue,                    1        2        3       4     
problem or project that most                                                   
concerns this board at this time?                                              


Do you have a clear idea as to                 1        2        3       4     
your priorities and goals for                                                  
your work in this system?                                                      

Do you have means and criteria                 1        2        3       4     
for knowing when these priorities                                              
and goals are being met?                                                       
C. TECHNICAL/MANAGERIAL
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Do you manage the paperwork                    1        2        3       4     
associated with your position                                                  
effectively?                                                                   

Do you effectively monitor and                 1        2        3       4     
respond to the changing human                                                  
resources needs in this system?                                                

Can you understand and                         1        2        3       4     
effectively direct the financial                                               
and business affairs of this                                                   
system?                                                                        

Do you delegate appropriately in               1        2        3       4     
your approach to your                                                          
decision-making functions?                                                     
D. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Do you devote serious attention                1        2        3       4     
to creating and maintaining a                                                  
high level of morale and a                                                     
positive climate in this system?                                               

Do you exercise effective                      1        2        3       4     
supervision of professional staff                                              
in this system?                                                                

Do you regularly monitor the                   1        2        3       4     
effectiveness of the schools and                                               
programs in this system?                                                       

Do you keep adequately informed                1        2        3       4     
as to recent developments in                                                   
curriculum, teaching and related                                               
technologies?                                                                  
E. POLITICAL SKILLS
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Do you communicate effectively                 1        2        3       4     
with the parents and the general                                               
community?                                                                     

Do you keep abreast of changes in              1        2        3       4     
government directives which have                                               
implications for this system?                                                  

Do you work to improve the image               1        2        3       4     
of this system in the broader                                                  
community?                                                                     

Do you seek to influence                       1        2        3       4     
government concerning the                                                      
emerging needs of this system?                                                 
F. What were the most significant successes of this system during the past school year?

G. What are the most pressing problems faced by this school division?

H. What are your own most significant and pressing professional development needs?


Table of Contents


CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT: BOARD FORM


Ask yourself these questions about the responsibilities and performance of your Chief Executive Officer. Circle the appropriate response.

A. PERSONAL /PROFESSIONAL

                                            Usually                    Rarely  

Does your CEO have a clear                     1        2        3       4     
understanding of the expectations                                              
the Board has for his/her role in                                              
this school division?                                                          

Does your CEO communicate openly               1        2        3       4     
and effectively with trustees?                                                 

Does your CEO exercise                         1        2        3       4     
fair-mindedness in dealings with                                               
the employees of this system?                                                  

Does your CEO openly respect and               1        2        3       4     
trust the board?                                                               

Is your CEO reliable in meeting                1        2        3       4     
the commitments made to the                                                    
board?                                                                         

Is your CEO flexible and creative              1        2        3       4     
in his/her approach to change in                                               
this system?                                                                   

Does your CEO demonstrate                      1        2        3       4     
effective skills of conflict                                                   
management.                                                                    
B. PURPOSE AND DIRECTION
                                            Usually                    Rarely  

Is your CEO aware of the goals                 1        2        3       4     
and priorities of this system?                                                 

Does your CEO communicate                      1        2        3       4     
expectations of the board and                                                  
system clearly to its employees?                                               



Can your CEO identify the issue,               1        2        3       4     
problem or project that most                                                   
concerns this board at this time?                                              

Does your CEO have a clear idea                1        2        3       4     
as to his/her priorities and                                                   
goals for his/her work in this                                                 
system?                                                                        

Does your CEO have means and                   1        2        3       4     
criteria for knowing when these                                                
priorities and goals are being                                                 
met?                                                                           

General Comments:                                                              
C. TECHNICAL/MANAGERIAL
                                            Usually                    Rarely  

Does your CEO manage the                       1        2        3       4     
paperwork associated with the                                                  
position effectively?                                                          

Does your CEO effectively monitor              1        2        3       4     
and respond to the changing human                                              
resources needs in this system?                                                

Can your CEO understand and                    1        2        3       4     
effectively direct the financial                                               
and business affairs of this                                                   
system?                                                                        

Does your CEO delegate                         1        2        3       4     
appropriately in his/her approach                                              
to decision-making functions?                                                  

General Comments:
D. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
                                            Usually                    Rarely  

Does your CEO devote serious                   1        2        3       4     
attention to creating and                                                      
maintaining a high level of                                                    
morale and a positive                                                          
climate in this system?                                                        

Does your CEO exercise effective               1        2        3       4     
supervision of professional staff                                              
in this system?                                                                

Does your CEO regularly monitor                1        2        3       4     
the effectiveness of the schools                                               
and programs in this system?                                                   

Does your CEO keep adequately                  1        2        3       4     
informed as to recent                                                          
developments in curriculum,                                                    
teaching and related                                                           
technologies?                                                                  

General Comments:
E. POLITICAL SKILLS
                                            Usually                    Rarely  

Does your CEO communicate                      1        2        3       4     
effectively with the parents and                                               
the general community?                                                         

Does your CEO keep abreast of                  1        2        3       4     
changes in government directives                                               
which have implications for this                                               
system?                                                                        

Does your CEO work to improve the              1        2        3       4     
image of this system in the                                                    
broader community?                                                             

Does your CEO seek to influence                1        2        3       4     
government concerning the                                                      
emerging needs of this system?                                                 

General Comments:
F. What were the most significant successes of this system during the past schoolyear?

G. What are the most pressing problems faced by this school division?

H. What do you perceive to be the most significant and pressing professionaldevelopment needs of your CEO at this time?


Table of Contents


DIRECTOR ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT: TEACHER FORM


Ask yourself these questions about the responsibilities and performance of the Director of Education in this school system. Circle the appropriate response.

A. PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL

                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Does your director have a clear                1        2        3       4     
understanding of his/her role in                                               
this school division?                                                          

Does your director communicate                 1        2        3       4     
openly and effectively with                                                    
teachers?                                                                      

Does your director exercise                    1        2        3       4     
fair-mindedness in his/her                                                     
dealings with the employees of                                                 
this system?                                                                   

Does your director openly respect              1        2        3       4     
teachers?                                                                      

Is your director reliable in                   1        2        3       4     
meeting the commitments made to                                                
professionals in this system?                                                  

Is your director flexible and                  1        2        3       4     
creative in his/her approach to                                                
change in this system?                                                         

Does your director demonstrate                 1        2        3       4     
effective skills of conflict                                                   
management?                                                                    
B. PURPOSE AND DIRECTION
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Is your director aware of the                  1        2        3       4     
goals and priorities of this                                                   
system?                                                                        

Does your director communicate                 1        2        3       4     
expectations of the board and                                                  
system clearly to its employees?                                               

Can your director identify the                 1        2        3       4     
issue, problem or project that                                                 
most concerns this system at this                                              
time?                                                                          

Does your director have a clear                1        2        3       4     
idea as to priorities and goals                                                
for his/her work in this system?                                               

Do you have means and criteria                 1        2        3       4     
for knowing when these priorities                                              
and goals are being met?                                                       

General Comments:                                                              

C. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Does your director devote serious              1        2        3       4     
attention to creating and                                                      
maintaining a high level of                                                    
morale and a positive climate in                                               
this system?                                                                   

Does your director exercise                    1        2        3       4     
effective supervision of                                                       
professional staff in this                                                     
system?                                                                        

Does your director regularly                   1        2        3       4     
monitor the effectiveness of the                                               
schools and programs in this                                                   
system?                                                                        

Does your director keep                        1        2        3       4     
adequately informed as to recent                                               
developments in curriculum,                                                    
teaching and related                                                           
technologies?                                                                  

General Comments:                                                             
D. POLITICAL SKILLS
                                            Usually                   Rarely   

Does your director communicate                 1        2        3       4     
effectively with the parents and                                               
the general community?                                                         

Does your director keep abreast                1        2        3       4     
of changes in government                                                       
directives which have                                                          
implications for this system?                                                  

Does your director work to                     1        2        3       4     
improve the image of this system                                               
in the broader community?                                                      

Does your director seek to                     1        2        3       4     
influence government concerning                                                
the emerging needs of this                                                     
system?                                                                        

General Comments:                                                              
E. What were the most significant successes of this system during the past schoolyear?

F. What are the most pressing problems faced by this school division?

Comments:


Table of Contents


CEO-BOARD CONFERENCE


Performancein Each Area

Strengths Needs Improvement

1. PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL

Key qualities which enable the director to relate effectively with the board, system employees and the public.

_____________________________________

2. PURPOSE AND DIRECTION

Clear understanding of the future directions of the board and the system, together with a clear sense of one's own vision and value system.

______________________________________

3. TECHNICAL/MANAGERIAL

Ability to organize and expedite the general operation of the system in accordance with provincial and board regulation. Facility with business and human resources.

______________________________________

4. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Ability to work effectively with system staff to develop, implement and evaluate the educational program. Ability to facilitate instrumental growth through supervision and staff development.

_______________________________________

5. POLITICAL SKILL

Assumption of a strong advocacy role for the system. Ability to work with an elected board.

__________________________________


Table of Contents


OBJECTIVES-BASED BOARD/CEO DISCUSSION


SETTING OBJECTIVES:

CEO and board mutually agree upon objectives and expected results. These may be objectives established for the system for a given period of time.

ESTABLISHING STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE:

CEO and board discuss the activities to be performed, and, in particular, the role of the CEO in ensuring that objectives can be achieved.

DETERMINING MEASUREMENT CRITERIA:

CEO and board set out procedures of measurement which will be used to assess progress, and at what junctures such assessments will be made.

EVALUATING RESULTS:

CEO and board discuss desired outcomes and compare results with originally stated objectives.


Table of Contents


MODULE #6

CEO REVIEW BASED UPON

THE LEADS LEADERSHIP MODEL


                                                                          
Guiding Question:                             

What are the mutual expectations for CEO leadership?            



OBJECTIVES                           MATERIALS AVAILABLE                   

To provide for CEO introspection     CEO Review Based upon the Leads       
regarding his or her leadership      Leadership Model                      
commitments.                         Fundamental Commitments               
To provide for reflection and        Role as "Leader of Leaders"           
board-CEO discussion regarding       Role as "Servant of Leaders"          
performance based upon the LEADS     Role as "Professional Advocate"       
leadership statement and board       Role as "Steward of Educational       
expectations.                        Resources"                            
To identify strengths, needed        Role as "Leader of Leaders" Trustee   
improvements, and responsibility     Form                                  
for related actions.                 Role as "Servant of Leaders" Trustee  
Form                                  
Role as "Professional Advocate"       
Trustee Form                          
Role as "Steward of Educational       
Resources" Trustee Form


Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP MODEL


In 1994 The Saskatchewan League of Educational Administrators, Directors and Superintendents adopted a statement on professional educational leadership to serve as a basis from which its members could "better understand their mission, values and goals; their present challenges and, hopefully, enhance the future advocacy, support and delivery of quality educational services in Saskatchewan". (Walker, 1993). This statement was based upon five basic elements as portrayed in Figure l. These are a) Fundamental Commitments; b) the "Leader of Leaders" role; c) the "Professional Advocate" role; d) the "Steward of Educational Resources" role; and, e) the "Servant of Leaders" role. Each of these is explicated in some depth in the LEADS document, and each contains several areas worthy of reflection both by the incumbent and his/her board. They are reframed in the following pages to facilitate CEO self reflection and board/CEO reaffirmation and discussion.

Figure One. L.E.A.D.S.' Leadership Model

Source: Walker, K. Educational

Leadership for Saskatchewan. LEADS, 1993


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP MODEL


FUNDAMENTAL COMMITMENTS


A. COMMITMENT TO COMMON ETHICAL PRINCIPLES


Usually 1 2 3 4 Rarely

  1. I am worthy of trust, through my

  2. honesty, integrity and loyalty. 1 2 3 4
  3. I recognize and honour the rights

  4. and dignity of others 1 2 3 4
  5. I am responsible, through my

  6. valuing of accountability and excellence 1 2 3 4
  7. I am fair, through my pursuit of justice,

  8. equity, due process, and consistency. 1 2 3 4
  9. I display concern for others in a

  10. kind, compassionate, generous manner. 1 2 3 4
  11. I appreciate my own professional

  12. duty to contribute to the public good. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


B. COMMITMENT TO THE CODE OF ETHICS


Usually Rarely

  1. I endeavor to be a good citizen and to

  2. hold myself to high ethical standards. 1 2 3 4
  3. I uphold the honor and dignity of my

  4. profession in all my actions and relations
    with pupils, colleagues, school board
    members, and the public. 1 2 3 4
  5. I accept the responsibility to keep abreast

  6. of current developments in education and
    to contribute to the growing body of specialized
    knowledge, concepts, and skills which
    characterize the professional aspects
    of school administration. 1 2 3 4
  7. I strive to provide the best possible

  8. educational experience and opportunities
    to all persons in the district placing the needs
    of the student above all other considerations. 1 2 3 4
  9. When applying for a position or entering into a

  10. contract I seek to preserve and enhance the
    prestige and status of my profession. 1 2 3 4
  11. I implement in good faith all provincial

  12. regulations and policy duly adopted by the Board. 1 2 3 4
  13. I recognize that the schools are the public's

  14. business and seek to keep the community
    fully and honestly informed about its schools
    while maintaining confidences entrusted to me
    in the course of executing the affairs of the schools. 1 2 3 4
  15. I refrain from permitting considerations of

  16. private gain or personal interest to affect
    the discharge of my professional responsibilities. 1 2 3 4
Source: LEADS Code of Ethics, 1984

Table of Contents


C. COMMITMENT TO PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL CONVICTIONS


Usually Rarely

  1. Promoting the cause of education is

  2. one of my major objectives. 1 2 3 4
  3. I cooperate with other agencies in

  4. matters relating to education. 1 2 3 4
  5. I am devoted to the goal of raising

  6. the status of the educational
    administration profession. 1 2 3 4
  7. I am committed to fostering ethical

  8. behaviour among my LEADS colleagues. 1 2 3 4
  9. I make myself available to provide

  10. professional advice and assistance
    to colleagues when needed. 1 2 3 4
  11. I respect the diversity of professional

  12. convictions which exist among my
    colleagues. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "LEADER OF LEADERS"


Usually 1 2 3 4 Rarely

  1. I seek to influence people who make

  2. decisions about the future of education. 1 2 3 4
  3. I set aside personal or political considerations

  4. in the best interests of children and the
    purpose of schooling. 1 2 3 4
  5. I seek to reach beyond my own constituent

  6. boundaries to work collaboratively with
    other jurisdictions. 1 2 3 4
  7. I tolerate ambiguity in messy, evolving

  8. and dynamic settings. 1 2 3 4
  9. I am able to identify emerging and

  10. changing goals of the system. 1 2 3 4
  11. I am able to report, explain, clarify, and

  12. justify school system goals and priorities. 1 2 3 4
  13. I am able to marshall support among

  14. internal and external constituent groups. 1 2 3 4
  15. I demonstrate shrewd but principled

  16. negotiating skills. 1 2 3 4
  17. I anticipate and deal with

  18. interorganizational conflict. 1 2 3 4
  19. I see beyond current realities to

  20. create new opportunities. 1 2 3 4
  21. I relate a compelling image of education that

  22. induces enthusiasm, support, cooperation,
    joint action and commitment. 1 2 3 4
  23. I am able to unlearn professional habits

  24. that may be barriers to creative ways of
    relating to the external environment. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "SERVANT OF LEADERS"


Usually Rarely

  1. I assist individuals and groups to see

  2. the relationship between their work and
    the work of others (inside and outside
    the system). 1 2 3 4
  3. I am willing to persist with people over

  4. what may seem to be protracted periods
    of time. 1 2 3 4
  5. I give attention to and care for people

  6. more than things or programs. 1 2 3 4
  7. I am able to create an organizational ethos

  8. based on service to clients through
    interactions characterized by mutual respect
    and mutual influence. 1 2 3 4
  9. I am able to persuade staff of the value of

  10. the more complex mission with which schools
    are now charged and the need to acquire
    new practices to meet these challenges. 1 2 3 4
  11. I assess, and help staff assess, the value

  12. of existing ways of doing what they do. 1 2 3 4
  13. I provide socialization experiences to other

  14. leaders and potential leaders which contribute
    significantly to their personal and professional
    development. 1 2 3 4
  15. I am able to put others first, when under

  16. pressure. 1 2 3 4
  17. I am able to marshall the skills, gifts,

  18. confidences, and energies of people
    necessary to deliver quality education. 1 2 3 4
  19. I am able to listen well, particularly to those

  20. advocating new and different perspectives. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "PROFESSIONAL ADVOCATE"


Usually Rarely

  1. I am able to develop a clear vision of what

  2. my school system should provide to students
    and community. 1 2 3 4
  3. I am able to diagnose and mediate the values

  4. and interests of my multiple constituencies. 1 2 3 4
  5. I develop and refine organizational policies

  6. so that these are consistent with preferred
    norms, values, and interests. 1 2 3 4
  7. I can articulate a robust philosophy of

  8. education, especially in relation to other
    social values. 1 2 3 4
  9. I am able to assist system stakeholders with

  10. diverse interests to find a common set of
    aspirations consistent with professional
    advocacy of best interests, public interests
    and common good. 1 2 3 4
  11. I foster a strong commitment to consensual

  12. and participative forms of decision-making
    where this is possible. 1 2 3 4
  13. I am able to "know-why" in addition to

  14. "know-how". 1 2 3 4
  15. I am able to articulate a common-sense and

  16. educationally sound vision for the future of
    education. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "STEWARD OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES"


Usually Rarely

  1. I am able to integrate large amounts of

  2. information from a wide variety of sources. 1 2 3 4
  3. I am able to evaluate, effectively, the

  4. relevance of information for professional
    purposes. 1 2 3 4
  5. I design working environments which allow

  6. staff to develop mastery of technical aspects
    of the more complex overall mission. 1 2 3 4
  7. I devise means for clearly communicating

  8. preferred practices to those responsible for
    their implementation. 1 2 3 4
  9. I operationalize support systems that facilitate

  10. the work of teachers. 1 2 3 4
  11. I am able to create a reasonably stable policy

  12. environment in support of preferred practices
    in the system. 1 2 3 4
  13. I assist others in the organization to choose

  14. or create structures which facilitate the
    achievement of organizational goals. 1 2 3 4
  15. I develop, implement and sustain effective

  16. policies and procedures for selecting, placing
    and supervising professional and support staff. 1 2 3 4
  17. I monitor structures, policies and procedures,

  18. and refine these as evidence warrants. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "LEADER OF LEADERS"


(TRUSTEE FORM)

Our CEO: Always Never

  1. Seeks to influence people who make

  2. decisions about the future of education 1 2 3 4
  3. Sets aside personal or political considerations

  4. in the best interests of children and the
    purpose of schooling. 1 2 3 4
  5. Seeks to reach beyond our constituent

  6. boundaries to work collaboratively with
    other jurisdictions. 1 2 3 4
  7. Tolerates ambiguity in messy, evolving

  8. and dynamic settings. 1 2 3 4
  9. Identifies emerging and changing goals

  10. for the system. 1 2 3 4
  11. Reports, explains, clarifies, and justifies

  12. school system goals and priorities. 1 2 3 4
  13. Marshalls support among internal and

  14. external constituent groups. 1 2 3 4
  15. Demonstrates shrewd but principled

  16. negotiating skills. 1 2 3 4
  17. Anticipates and deals with interorganizational

  18. conflict. 1 2 3 4
  19. Sees beyond current realities to create

  20. new opportunities. 1 2 3 4
  21. Relates a compelling image of education that

  22. induces enthusiasm, support, cooperation,
    joint action and commitment. 1 2 3 4
  23. Can unlearn professional habits that may be

  24. barriers to creative ways of relating to the
    external environment. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "SERVANT OF LEADERS"


(TRUSTEE FORM)

Our CEO: Usually Rarely

  1. Assists individuals and groups to see

  2. the relationship between their work and
    the work of others (inside and outside
    the system); 1 2 3 4
  3. Persists with people over what may seem

  4. to be protracted periods of time; 1 2 3 4
  5. Gives attention to and cares for people

  6. more than things or programs; 1 2 3 4
  7. Creates an organizational ethos based on

  8. service to clients through interactions
    characterized by mutual respect and mutual
    influence; 1 2 3 4
  9. Persuades staff of the value of the more

  10. complex mission with which schools
    are now charged and the need to acquire
    new practices to meet these challenges; 1 2 3 4
  11. Assesses, and helps staff assess, the value

  12. of existing ways of doing what they do; 1 2 3 4
  13. Provides socialization experiences to other

  14. leaders and potential leaders which contribute
    significantly to their personal and professional
    development. 1 2 3 4
  15. Puts others first, when under pressure. 1 2 3 4
  16. Marshalls the skills, gifts, confidences, and

  17. energies of people necessary to deliver quality
    education. 1 2 3 4
  18. Listens well, particularly to those advocating

  19. new and different perspectives. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "PROFESSIONAL ADVOCATE"


(TRUSTEE FORM)

Our CEO: Usually Rarely

  1. Has developed a clear vision of what our

  2. school system should provide to students
    and community. 1 2 3 4
  3. Diagnoses and mediates the values

  4. and interests of my multiple constituencies. 1 2 3 4
  5. Develops and refines organizational policies

  6. so that these are consistent with preferred
    norms, values, and interests. 1 2 3 4
  7. Articulates a robust philosophy of

  8. education, especially in relation to other
    social values. 1 2 3 4
  9. Assists system stakeholders with

  10. diverse interests to find a common set of
    aspirations consistent with professional
    advocacy of best interests, public interests
    and common good. 1 2 3 4
  11. Fosters a strong commitment to consensual

  12. and participative forms of decision-making
    where this is possible. 1 2 3 4
  13. Works on the basis of "know-why" in addition

  14. to "know-how". 1 2 3 4
  15. Articulates a common-sense and educationally

  16. sound vision for the future of education. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


CEO REVIEW BASED UPON THE LEADS LEADERSHIP STATEMENT


ROLE AS "STEWARD OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES"


(TRUSTEE FORM)

Our CEO: Usually Rarely

  1. Integrates large amounts of information

  2. from a wide variety of sources. 1 2 3 4
  3. Evaluates, effectively, the relevance of

  4. information for professional purposes. 1 2 3 4
  5. Designs working environments which allow

  6. staff to develop mastery of technical aspects
    of the more complex overall mission. 1 2 3 4
  7. Devises means for clearly communicating

  8. preferred practices to those responsible for
    their implementation. 1 2 3 4
  9. Operationalizes support systems that facilitate

  10. the work of teachers. 1 2 3 4
  11. Creates a reasonably stable policy environment

  12. in support of preferred practices in the system. 1 2 3 4
  13. Assists others in the organization to choose

  14. or create structures which facilitate the
    achievement of organizational goals. 1 2 3 4
  15. Develops, implements and sustains effective

  16. policies and procedures for selecting, placing
    and supervising professional and support staff. 1 2 3 4
  17. Monitors structures, policies and procedures,

  18. and refines these as evidence warrants. 1 2 3 4

Table of Contents


DOCUMENTS CENTRAL TO THE REVIEW PROCESS


Table of Contents


GOALS OF EDUCATION FOR SASKATCHEWAN


Goals of education in Saskatchewan should direct efforts to develop the potential of all students in the province. Education should affirm the worth of each individual and lay the foundation for learning throughout life.

Students benefit from exposure to learning in a variety of situations. Attainment of the goals is a venture the school shares with the student, the home, the church, and the community. Although the degree of school responsibility will vary from community to community, the school has some responsibility for each goal.

A body of knowledge and a range of skills and attitudes are necessary to function in a changing world. It is intended, then, that education will enable Saskatchewan students to do the following to the best of their abilities:

BASIC SKILLS

  1. Read, write, and compute
  2. Acquire information and meaning through observing, listening, reading, and experiencing
  3. Process information through intellectual and technological means
  4. Solve problems by applying basic principles and processes of the sciences, arts, and humanities
  5. Communicate ideas through written and spoken language, mathematical symbols, and aesthetic expression
LIFE-LONG LEARNING
  1. Seek and value learning experiences
  2. Act as self-reliant learners
  3. Base actions on the knowledge that it is necessary to learn throughout life
UNDERSTANDING AND RELATING TO OTHERS
  1. Act on the belief that each individual is worthwhile
  2. Base actions on the recognition that people differ in their values, behaviors, and life styles
  3. Interact and feel comfortable with others who are different in race, religion, status, or personal attributes
  4. Develop a sense of responsibility toward others
SELF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
  1. Perceive themselves in a positive way
  2. Appreciate their own abilities and limitations
  3. Set and work toward personal goals
  4. Assess praise and criticism realistically
  5. Present themselves with confidence
POSITIVE LIFE STYLE
  1. Practice appropriate personal hygiene, engage in sufficient physical activity, and maintain a nutritionally balanced diet
  2. Avoid harmful use of alcohol and other drugs
  3. Cultivate interests that may be the basis for personal development and leisure pursuits
  4. Recognize the importance of productive activity
  5. Display initiative and pursue tasks diligently
  6. Maintain a safe and healthful community
  7. Respect and seek to enhance the environment
  8. Appreciate beauty in its many natural and constructed forms
  9. Express themselves creatively
SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT
  1. Seek an understanding of the purpose and worth of human existence
  2. Develop a knowledge of God
  3. Respect family, religion, and culture in a pluralistic society
CAREER AND CONSUMER DECISIONS
  1. Develop an awareness of career opportunities
  2. Develop interests and abilities in relation to vocational expectations
  3. Adapt to shifts in employment patterns and technology
  4. Make informed consumer decisions
MEMBERSHIP IN SOCIETY
  1. Assume responsibility for their own actions
  2. Work with others to achieve individual and group goals
  3. Participate in the democratic processes of government and perform the duties of citizenship
  4. Respect the rights and property of others
  5. Act with honesty, integrity, compassion, and fairness
  6. Develop a sense of national pride and acknowledge the need for international understanding
  7. Work toward greater social justice
  8. Assume responsibility for dependent persons in a manner consistent with their needs
  9. Respect law and authority
  10. Exercise the right of dissent responsibly
GROWING WITH CHANGE
  1. Work toward immediate and long-term goals
  2. Base actions on an understanding that change is a natural process in society
  3. Select workable alternatives in response to changing conditions
  4. Develop confidence in making decisions that involve risk.
Saskatchewan Education

Table of Contents


THE SSTA CODE OF ETHICS


AS A SCHOOL BOARD MEMBER

  1. I will be motivated primarily by an earnest desire to serve my district or unit, and the children of my community in the best way.
  2. I will endeavour to attend all board meetings.
  3. I will recognize that the expenditure of school funds is a public trust, and I will endeavour to see that all such funds shall be expended efficiently, economically, and for the best interest of the schools.
  4. I will not use the schools or any part of the school program for my own personal advantage or for the advantage of my friends.
  5. I will do everything possible to maintain the integrity, confidence and dignity of the office of school trustee.
  6. I will listen to what other board members and other individuals or groups may have to say before making final decisions.
  7. I will endeavour to avoid rancor and bitterness, to observe proper decorum and behaviour, to encourage full and open discussions in all matters with my fellow members of the board, to treat them with respect and consideration, and not to withhold or conceal from them any information or matter in which they should be concerned.
  8. I will make no disparaging remarks, in or out of the board meeting, about other members of the board or their opinions, but I reserve the right to make honest and respectful criticism.
  9. I will recognize that authority rests with the board in legal session, and not with individual members of the board.
  10. I will abide by majority decisions of the board once they are made, and I will accept and support them so long as I remain a member of the board, but at the time I seek re-election to the board I shall be free to repeat and support the minority opinion that I upheld when the decision was made.
  11. I will not discuss the confidential business of the board in my home, on the street, or in my office, the place for such discussion being the school board meeting or a committee meeting thereof.
  12. I will endeavour to keep informed on all local, provincial, and national educational developments of significance.
  13. I will earnestly try to interpret the needs and attitudes of the entire area of administration, and do my best to translate them into the educational program of the schools.

Table of Contents


LEADS CODE OF ETHICS


  1. A member of LEADS endeavors to be a good citizen and to hold himself/herself to high ethical standards.
  2. A member of LEADS constantly upholds the honor and dignity of his/her profession in all his/her actions and relations with pupils, colleagues, school board members and the public.
  3. A member of LEADS accepts the responsibility keep abreast of current developments in education and to contribute to the growing body of specialized knowledge, concepts, and skills which characterize the professional aspects of school administration.
  4. A member of LEADS strives to provide the best possible educational experience and opportunities to all persons in the district placing the needs of the student above all other considerations.
  5. A member of LEADS applying for a position or entering into a contract seeks to preserve and enhance the prestige and status of his/her profession.
  6. A member of LEADS implements in good faith all provincial regulations and policy duly adopted by the Board.
  7. A member of Leads recognizes that the schools are the public's business and seeks to keep the community fully and honestly informed about its schools while maintaining confidences entrusted to him/her in the course of executing the affairs of the schools.
  8. A member of LEADS shall not permit considerations of private gain or personal interest to affect the discharge of his/her professional responsibilities.

Table of Contents


Bibliography

Beauchea, S. (1993). A national study of school district consolidations: implications for New Jersey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey.

Bridgman, J. (Ed.). (1987). A manual for merger. Raleigh: North Carolina department of Public Instruction, 1987.

Burlingame, M. (1979, May). Declining enrolment and small rural cities and districts: an exploratory analysis. Education and Urban Society. 1, 313-332.

Butler, R. J. & Monk, D. H. (1985). The cost of public schooling in New York state: the role of scale and efficiency in 1978-79. Journal of Human Resources. 20, 377-378.

Canadian Education Association. (1995). The Canadian education association handbook. Toronto: author.

Canter, G. (1986). School district reorganization: a qualified success. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 287 624.

Coleman, P. (1972). The perils of bigness: the case against large school districts. Educational Administration Quarterly. 8, 58-78.

Coleman, P. & LaRocque, L. (1984). Economies of scale revisited: school district operating costs in British Columbia, 1972-82. Journal of Education Finance. 10, 25-35.

Davis, C. E. (1986). If we can haul the milk, we can haul the kids. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 287 632.

DeYoung, A. (1989). The disappearance of "social capital" in rural America: are all rural children "at risk?" Rural Special Education Quarterly. 10(1), 38-44.

DeYoung, A., & Theobald, P. (1991). Community schools in the national context: the social and cultural impact of education reform movements on American rural schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education. 7(3), 3-14.

Fox, W. (1981, Winter). Reviewing economies of size in education. Journal of Education Finance. 6, 273-296.

Galvin, P. (1986). School district reorganization: a case study of the community participation approach. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 287 626.

Ghan, G. (1990, January). Iowa school reorganization: where it has been and where it is going. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364 970.

Ghan, G. (1991, June). Iowa school reorganization: managing the changes. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364 970.

Ghan, G. (1992, June). Iowa School reorganization: principles and practices of reorganization. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364 970.

Greider, C. (1947). Relation of school district reorganization to finance in business administration. Review of Educational Research. 17, 166-177.

Guthrie, J. (1979). Organizational scale and school success. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 1(1), 21-22.

Hanson, N. W. (1964). Economy of scale as a cost factor in financing public school. National Tax Journal. 17(1), 92-95.

Harvey, N. (1992). Something to think about. MAST Journal. 9(1), 9.

Hickey, M. F. (1969). Optimum school district size. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 035 108.

Jefferson, A. (1985). Support of small school jurisdictions in Alberta. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research. 31(1), 35-40.

Jewell, R. W. (1989). School and school district size relationships. Education and Urban Society. 21, 140-153.

Kenny, L. (1982). Economies of scale in schooling. Economics of Education Review. 2(1), 1-24.

Kiesling, H. (1967). Measuring a local government service: a study of school districts in New York state. Review of Economics and Statistics. 49, 356-367.

Langlois H. O., & Scharf, M. P. (1991). School finance and governance review. Regina: Saskatchewan Education.

McLure, W. (1953). School district finance in district reorganization. Phi Delta Kappan. 32, 321-326.

Melvin, C. (1995). 1995 bugets call for action. The School Trustee. XLVIII(2), 11-13.

Merlo, F. (1971). What about the size of a school district? School Management. 15(5), 38.

Monk, D. (1987). School district enrollment and inequality in the supply of classes. Economics of Education Review. 6, 365-377.

Mullins, C. (1973). School district consolidation: odds are 2 to 1 it'll get you. American School Board Journal. 160(11), 23-26.

Oakerson, R. (1992). Size, function, and structure: jurisdictional size effects on public sector performance. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354 132.

Rosenfeld, S. A. (1977). Centralization versus decentralization: a case study of rural education in Vermont. In Sher, Jonathon P. (Ed.), Education in rural America: a reassessment of conventional wisdom (pp. 205-268). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Rosenfeld, S. A., & Sher, J. P. (1977). The urbanization of rural schools. In Sher, Jonathon P. (Ed.), Education in rural America: a reassessment of conventional wisdom (pp. 11-42). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Saskatchewan School Trustees Association. (1993). Task force on educational governance: final report. Regina: SSTA.

Shapiro, D. (1973). Economy of scale as a cost factor in the operation of school districts in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Economics. 6, 114-121.

Sher, J. P. (Ed.). (1977). Education in rural America: a reassessment of conventional wisdom. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Sher, J., & Shaller, K. (1986). Heavy meddle: a critique of the North Carolina DPI's plan to mandate school district mergers throughout the state. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 270 245.

Sher, J., & Tompkins, R. (1977). Economy, efficiency, and equality: the myths of rural school and district consolidation. CEFP Journal. 15(2), 13-14, 16.

Strang, D. (1987). The administrative transformation of American education: school district consolidation. Administrative Science Quarterly. 32, 352-366.

Streifel, J. (1989). The long-term effects of school consolidations that occurred from 1980-1981 through 1983-1984. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada.

Streifel, J., Foldesy, G., & Holman, D.. (1991). The financial effects of consolidation. Journal of Research in Rural Education. 17(2), 13-20.

Streifel, J., Holman, D., & Foldesy, G.. (1989). An overview of the research on school district consolidation. Journal of Rural and Small Schools. 5(3), 34-39.

Tholkes, R. J., & Sederberg, C. H. (1990). Economies of scale and rural schools. Research in Rural Education. 7(1), 9-15.

Thurston, P., & Clauss, J. (1985). CPR for rural school districts: emerging alternatives in curriculum, program, and reorganization. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 266 888.

Walberg, H. J. (1989). District size and student learning. Education and Urban Society. 21, 154-163.

Walberg, H. J., & Fowler, W. J. (1986). Expenditure and size efficiencies of public school districts. Educational Researcher. 16(7), 5-13.

Wales, T. (1973). The effects of school and district size on educational cost in British Columbia. International Economic Review. 14, 710-720.

Ward, J., & Rink, F. (1992). Analysis of local stakeholder opposition to school district consolidation. Journal of Research in Rural Education. 8(2), 11-19.

Webb, D. (1979). Fiscal implications of school district reorganization. Journal of Educational Finance. 4, 342-357.

White, F., & Tweeten, L. (1973). Optimal school district size emphasizing rural areas. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 55(1), 45-53.

Williams, D. (1990). The dimensions of education: recent research on school size. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 347 006.


Back to: Governance